Evidence-based Measures of Empowerment for Research on Gender Equality

Measure: Reproductive Decision-Making Agency Scale

The Reproductive Decision-Making Agency Scale is a 4-item measure of three domains of reproductive behavior: when to have children, whether to use family planning, and which family planning method to use.

 High Psychometric Score


1. When discussing, I want to know if you shared your opinion about what you wanted with your husband. Would you say that you (read aloud options to participant):

Response Options:
1. Shared your opinion
2. Wanted to share your opinion but did not feel comfortable so did not share
3. Wanted to share your opinion but did not think opinion would be valued so did not share

2. Do you think your opinion was valued?

Response Options:
1. Had the same opinion as husband
2. Did not share your opinion because the issue did not matter to you
3. Don’t recall/don’t know
4. Participant refused to answer
5. Was valued
6. Was not valued
7. Don’t recall/don’t know
8. Participant refused to answer

3. Who had the final say on [insert topic from base question]?

Response Options:
1. Myself
2. Husband
3. Myself and husband
4. Mother-in-law
5. Other (specify______)
6. No decision made
7. Participant refused to answer

4. Would you prefer to have had more influence in the decision about [insert topic from base question] less influence, or were you happy with your level of influence?

Response Options:
1. More influence
2. Less influence
3. Satisfied
4. Unsure
5. Participant refused to answer




Adult (>=18)

Scoring Procedures:

Scoring Procedure:
Not specified.

Primary Citation: Hinson, L., Edmeades, J., Murithi, L., & Puri, M. (2019). Developing and testing measures of reproductive decision-making agency in Nepal. SSM-Population Health, 9, 100473.