Support for Traditional Gender Roles (Male Dominance)

The Support for Traditional Gender Roles (Male Dominance) is a 9-item scale to measure the extent to which men agree or disagree with statements about the roles and entitlements of men and women.


Geographies Tested: Kenya

Populations Included: Male

Age Range: Adults


I am now going to read some statements about relationships between men and women. Please tell me if you strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree or strongly disagree.

1.Changing diapers, giving the kids a bath, and feeding the kids are the mothers’ responsibility.
2.A man is the one who decides when to have sex with his wife.
3.Only when a woman has a child is she a real woman.
4.If a woman wants to avoid being pregnant, it is her responsibility alone.
5.It’s better to have more sons than daughters in a family.
6.Women have the same rights as men to work and study outside of their home.
7.A couple should decide together how many children to have.
8.Men should help with the household duties.
9.It is just as important for a girl to go to school as it is for a boy to go to school.

Response Options:
Strongly Agree - 5
Agree - 4
Neither Agree Nor Disagree - 3
Disagree - 2
Strongly Disagree - 1

Scoring Procedures

The scale is constructed by summing the item scores and dividing by the number of items. The scale score range is 1-5, and a higher scale score indicates a higher support for traditional gender roles (male dominance).

Original Citation

Wegs, C., Creanga, A. A., Galavotti, C., & Wamalwa, E. (2016). Community dialogue to shift social norms and enable family planning: an evaluation of the family planning results initiative in Kenya. PloS One, 11(4), e0153907.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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