Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R)

Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) is a 22-item measure of exposure to bullying in the workplace. The measure covers three underlying factors: personal bullying, work-related bullying, and physically intimidating forms of bullying.


Geographies Tested: United Kingdom

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adults


Work-related bullying
1. Someone withholding information which affects your performance
2. Being ordered to do work below your level of competence
3. Having your opinions ignored
4. Being given tasks with unreasonable deadlines
5. Excessive monitoring of your work
6. Pressure not to claim something to which by right you are entitled (e.g. sick leave, holiday entitlement, travel expenses)
7. Being exposed to an unmanageable workload

Person-related bullying
8. Being humiliated or ridiculed in connection with your work
9. Having key areas of responsibility removed or replaced with more trivial or unpleasant tasks
10. Spreading of gossip and rumors about you
11. Being ignored or excluded
12. Having insulting or offensive remarks made about your person, attitudes or your private life
13. Hints or signals from others that you should quit your job
14. Repeated reminders of your errors or mistakes
15. Being ignored or facing a hostile reaction when you approach
16. Persistent criticism of your errors or mistakes
17. Practical jokes carried out by people you don’t get along with
18. Having allegations made against you
19. Being the subject of excessive teasing and sarcasm

Physically intimidating bullying
20. Being shouted at or being the target of spontaneous anger
21. Intimidating behaviors such as finger-pointing, invasion of personal space, shoving, blocking your way
22. Threats of violence or physical abuse or actual abuse

Response Options:
Now and then

Scoring Procedures

The response to all items are averaged.

Original Citation

Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., & Notelaers, G. (2009). Measuring exposure to bullying and harassment at work: Validity, factor structure and psychometric properties of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. Work & Stress, 23(1), 24-44.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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