The Gender Equitable Men (GEM) Scale – Uganda is an 18-item measure of men's attitudes toward gender norms in Uganda, based on the Gender Equitable Men scale (Pulerwitz and Baker 2008). The scale measures four content areas on gender norms including violence, reproductive health and disease prevention, sexuality, and domestic chores and daily life.
1. There are times a woman deserves to be beaten. 2. A woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together. 3. It is ok for a man to hit his wife if she will not have sex with him. 4. It is alright for a man to beat his wife if she is unfaithful. 5. It is a woman's responsibility to avoid getting pregnant. 6. Women who carry condoms on them are easy. 7. Only when a woman has a child is she a real woman. 8. A real man produces a male child. 9. You do not talk about sex, you just do it. 10. A woman who has sex before she marries does not deserve respect. 11. Men need sex more than women do. 12. Men are always ready to have sex. 13. It is the man who decides how he wants to have sex. 14. Giving the kids a bath and feeding the kids are the mother's responsibility. 15. A woman's most important role is to take care of her home and cook for her family. 16. A man should have the final word on decisions in his home. 17. The husband should decide what major household items to buy. 18. A woman should obey her husband in all things.
Response Options: Agree Partially Agree Do not agree
While scoring, responses indicating partially agree and agree are combined and coded as 0, and responses indicating "do not agree" are coded as 1. Scores are summed such that more support for equitable gender norms are reflected by a higher total score.
Vu, L., Pulerwitz, J., Burnett-Zieman, B., Banura, C., Okal, J., & Yam, E. (2017). Inequitable gender norms from early adolescence to young adulthood in Uganda: Tool validation and differences across age groups. Journal of adolescent health, 60(2), S15-S21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.09.027
Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework
Field Expert Input
Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing