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Masculine Norms and Family Planning Acceptance (MNFPA) Scale

The Masculine Norms and Family Planning Acceptance (MNFPA) Scale is a 10-item scale measuring masculine norms that may shape men's resistance to contraception. Items assess men's beliefs in norms regarding contraceptive decision-making, desire for many children and vasectomy.

Categories

Geographies Tested: Kenya

Populations Included: Male

Age Range: Adults

Items:

1. A man who has many children is a strong male
2. Men with more than one female partner should avoid using family planning methods
3. A man who undergoes vasectomy is a weak male
4. A woman who wants to use a family planning method is undermining her male partner as the head of the household
5. Women who use family planning methods are taking power away from men
6. Women who initiate a discussion about using family planning methods with their male partners are trying to take power away from men
7. The decision to use a family planning method should be made solely by the man
8. A man has the final say in family planning decisions
9. A woman should seek permission from her male partner to use a family planning method
10. Women who use family planning methods are unfaithful

Response Options:
Strongly agree or Agree - 0
Disagree - 1
Strongly disagree - 2

Scoring Procedures

Item scores are summed for the total scale score, on a 1-20 scale.

Original Citation

Newmann, S. J., Zakaras, J. M., Dworkin, S. L., Withers, M., Ndunyu, L., Gitome, S., Gorrindo, P., Bukusi, E. A., & Rocca, C. H. (2021). Measuring men's gender norm beliefs related to contraception: Development of the Masculine Norms and Family Planning Acceptance Scale. Archives of Sexual Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-021-01941-w

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