Women Entrepreneurship

The Women Entrepreneurship measure includes 11 select items on women’s experiences as an entrepreneur, reasons for entrepreneurship, challenges faced, and gender parity in business. These items and others were included in a multicounty study examining the gender gap in entrepreneurial businesses.


Geographies Tested: Azerbaijan,Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan,Uzbekistan

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


1. Which of the following best describe(s) your reason(s) for having your own business?

[Read out: Record up to three reasons, if the respondent gives more than one reason.]

Response Options:*
I wanted to be my own boss.
I saw the market opportunity for a profitable business.
I couldn’t find work anywhere else.
I needed more flexibility to earn an income while still taking care of family and household duties.
I don’t have any skills for other kinds of employment.
My previous employment ended.
I wanted to increase my potential to earn a higher income.
Other (please specify).

2. Was it necessary for you to have your husband’s permission to start the business?

[Read out. Record only one response.]

Response Options:*
Yes, it was legally required.
Yes, but it was not legally required.
No, it was not.
Not applicable. (I did not have a husband at the time.)

3. How many owners (i.e., partners, shareholders) are there in this business and what sex are they?

Response Options:*
Female owners (excluding yourself) [Write in number]
Male owners [Write in number]

4. Which types of information out of the list below would you say to be important for your business, and are you either not getting it, or have it at the moment?

[Tick all that apply]

  • Women’s legal rights in relation to property, assets, and employment
  • Where to go for support and help to protect my legal rights in relation to property, assets, and employment
  • How to start a business
  • How to access a market
  • How to improve the quality of my products or services
  • Success stories from other women entrepreneurs
  • Useful training courses for women entrepreneurs
  • Government requirements that businesses need to comply with
  • Financing programs for women entrepreneurs
  • How to read the terms and conditions of a loan
  • How to successfully apply for loans
  • Online services that are useful for entrepreneurswomen entrepreneurs
  • New business opportunities and models that are suitable for women entrepreneurs
  • Other (please specify)

Response Options:*
I need access to this information
I am not getting access to this information
I have limited access to this information
I have easy access to this information

5. Would you be interested in an information service where useful information for women entrepreneurs is delivered to your mobile phone by SMS?

Response Options:*

6. What source(s) of financing did you use to get your business started?

[Read out the list: multiresponse. Indicate “yes” or “no” response for each item in the list.]

(National adaptation of this question may be required, depending on the possible sources of financing available)

  • My own savings
  • Bank
  • Government loan fund
  • International (donor funded) project
  • Familyfriends
  • Microfinance institution
  • Money lender
  • Informal savings or rotational credit scheme
  • Other (please specify)

Response Options:*

7. During the past year, where did you try to get financing for your business and were you successful in your efforts?

[Read out: multiresponse. Record response for each item in the list]

(National adaptation of this question may be required)

  • A bank
  • Government loan fund
  • International (donor funded) project
  • Familyfriends
  • Microfinance institution
  • Money lender (private, individual)
  • Informal savings and credit rotational scheme
  • Other (please specify)

Response Options:*
If “yes,” were you successful?

8. What, in your view, are (or would be) the major problems in obtaining a loan from a financial institution (bank or microfinance institution)?

[Read out the list, multiresponse. Circle number in appropriate column for all of the items in the list.]

  • Collateral requirements are too high
  • Interest rates are too high
  • The amount of the approved loan is (would be) too small
  • The term of the loan is (would be) too short
  • Required to provide a personal guarantee
  • Required to have a co-signer (husband, father, or other)
  • Women entrepreneurs are not taken seriously by loan officers
  • I do not have collateral
  • Other (please specify)

Response Options:*
Yes (a problem)
No (not a problem)
Do not knowHave no view

9. Are you a member of any of the following business-related organizations?
[Read out list. Multiresponse]

  • Chamber of commerce or industry
  • Business association that has both men and women as members
  • Women’s business or women entrepreneurs association
  • Industry association (sector specific)
  • Employer’s association
  • Other (please specify)

Response Options:*

10. Have you ever participated in business support programs that were offered specifically to women entrepreneurs?

[Read out list. Multiresponse]

  • Loan program for women entrepreneurs
  • Entrepreneurship (or self-employment) training program for women entrepreneurs
  • Services of a women’s business supportenterprise center
  • Government procurement program targeted to women business owners
  • Women’s trade fair or exhibition (regional, national, or international)
  • Business counseling or mentoring program for women entrepreneurs

Response Options:*

11. Please indicate whether you Agree or Disagree with the following statements.

[Read out the list. Circle appropriate response for each item in the list.]

  • It is difficult for a woman entrepreneur to deal with government regulations.
  • Access to credit and finance are good and lenders are women-friendly.
  • Women have the same rights as men to own property and to have it registered in their own name.
  • I know everything I need to know to make my business successful.
  • My previous education and experience prepared me well for my role as an entrepreneur.
  • I need more skills to operate my business successfully and to grow it to the next stage.
  • I have lots of support from women’s business associations and groups.
  • Women have the same opportunity as men to participate in entrepreneurship education and training programs.
  • Women have the same opportunity as men to access financing for their businesses.
  • Women entrepreneurs have the same opportunity to access technology as men.
  • Making better use of information technologies would enable women-owned enterprises to compete in markets more effectively.
  • Information about business development support services is widely available to women entrepreneurs.
  • Information about types and sources of financing is widely available to women entrepreneurs.
  • Information about types and sources of financing is widely available to women.
  • Businesswomen’swomen entrepreneurs’ associations are influential in the policy and decision-making processes of government and are able to represent my interests and concerns as a woman entrepreneur.
  • Business and industry associations advocate to the government on policies to meet the needs of women entrepreneurs.
  • Entrepreneurship is seen as an acceptable role for women in the economy and society.
  • It is more difficult for a woman to start and grow a business than for a man.
  • The government is supportive of women business owners in its attitudes and assistance programs.
  • Laws and regulations in my country support a high degree of gender equity and equality.
  • Overall, the business environment is very favorable to women entrepreneurs.

Response Options:*
No opinion

* Numeric codes for the Response Options above were not provided in the original report.

Scoring Procedures

Not Applicable

Original Citation

Asian Development Bank. (2014). Information and communication technologies for women entrepreneurs: Prospects and potential in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Uzbekistan.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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