Contraceptive Self-Efficacy Among Women in Sub-Saharan Africa (CSESSA)-Nigeria

Contraceptive Self-Efficacy Among Women in Sub-Saharan Africa (CSESSA)-Nigeria is a 10-item scale of women's belief in her own ability to obtain, discuss and change family planning methods and habits. This measure has 3 sub-scales: husband/partner communication, provider communication and choosing and managing a method. This particular scale was validated in the low modern contraceptive prevalence setting of Nigeria, however there is a similar scale for use in higher prevalence settings such as Kenya here.


Geographies Tested: Nigeria

Populations Included: Female

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


How certain are you that you can...

Husbandpartner communication
1. Discuss family size with my husbandpartner
2. Discuss if and when I'd like to get pregnant again with my husbandpartner
3. Discuss specific family planning methods with my husbandpartner
4. Reach an agreement with my husbandpartner about use of family planning that take my desires into account

Provider communication
5. Bring up the topic of family planning with a health care provider
6. Ask a provider to clarify something they have told me about family planning if I'm not sure I understand
7. Tell a provider what's important to me in choosing a family planning method

Choosing and managing a method
8. Obtain the method of family planning I want, if I want one
9. Obtain a different method of family planning if the one I want isn't available
10. Stop using family planning and get again ifwhen I want to

Response Options:
10-point visual analogue scale
Cannot do at all - 0
Highly certain can do - 10

Scoring Procedures

The 10-item scale score is calculated by summing all item values, creating a total score ranging from 0 to 100. Item scores can also be summed by sub-scale.

Original Citation

Whiting-Collins, L., Grenier, L., Winch, P. J., Tsui, A., & Donohue, P. K. (2020). Measuring contraceptive self-efficacy in sub-Saharan Africa: Development and validation of the CSESSA scale in Kenya and Nigeria. Contraception X, 2, 100041.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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