Ambivalence toward Men Inventory (AMI)

The Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory (AMI) is a 20-item measure that captures traditional views of men. The measure includes two subscales: Hostility toward Men and Benevolence toward Men. The Hostility toward Men subscale includes items that relate to resentment of paternalism, compensatory gender differentiation, and heterosexual hostility. The Benevolence toward Men subscale includes items regarding maternalism, complementary gender differentiation, and heterosexual intimacy.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


Hostility toward Men

Resentment of Paternalism
1. Men will always fight for greater control in society.
2. Even sensitive men want traditional relationships.
3. Men pay lip service to equality, but can’t handle it.

Compensatory Gender Differentiation
4. Most men are really like children.
5. Men would be lost without women to guide them.
6. Men act like babies when they are sick.

Heterosexual Hostility
7. When in positions of power, men sexually harass women.
8. Men have no morals in what they will do to get sex.
9. When men “help” women it is to prove they are better.
10. Men usually try to dominate conversations with women.

Benevolence toward Men

11. Even if both work, woman should take care of man at home.
12. Men are mainly useful to provide financial security for women.
13. Woman should take care of man at home, else he’d fall apart.

Complementary Gender Differentiation
14. Men are more willing to risk self to protect others.
15. Men are more willing to take risks than women.
16. Men are less likely to fall apart in emergencies.

Heterosexual Intimacy
17. Every woman needs a male partner who will cherish her.
18. Woman is never fulfilled without romantic relationship.
19. Every woman ought to have a man she adores.
20. Women are incomplete without men.

Response Options:
Disagree strongly - 0
Disagree somewhat - 1
Disagree slightly - 2
Agree slightly - 3
Agree somewhat - 4
Agree strongly - 5

Scoring Procedures

Items are averaged to create a total scale score or individually by the two subscales. Higher scores indicate greater hostility and benevolence toward men.

Original Citation

Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1999). The Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent beliefs about men. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 23, 519-536.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


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