Collective Efficacy Among Children Scale (CE-ACS): Afterschool Connectedness Subscale

Afterschool Connectedness is an 8-item subscale of the Collective Efficacy Among Children Scale (CE-ACS). This measure is used to evaluate the degree to which elementary school children participating in an afterschool program feel safe and close to program staff and other children (social cohesion). The full CE-ACS also includes a second subscale, “Willingness to Intervene,” which is used to assess informal social control and can be found here.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Children


1. I feel close to people at my afterschool program.
2. I feel like I am a part of my afterschool program.
3. I am happy to be at my afterschool program.
4. The staff at my afterschool program treat children fairly.
5. I have trouble getting along with the staff at my afterschool program.*
6. I feel that my afterschool program staff cares about me.
7. I feel safe in my afterschool program.
8. I like the children in my afterschool program.

*Item is reverse coded

Response Options:
Not true - 1
Sometimes true - 2
Very true - 3

Scoring Procedures

The subscale score is based on the average (mean) of the above 8 items.

Original Citation

Smith, E. P., Osgood, D. W., Caldwell, L., Hynes, K., & Perkins, D. F. (2013). Measuring collective efficacy among children in community-based afterschool programs: Exploring pathways toward prevention and positive youth development. American Journal of Community Psychology, 52(1-2), 27-40. doi: 10.1007/s10464-013-9574-6

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Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








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