Modern Sexism

Modern Sexism is an 8-item measure of the denial of continued discrimination against women, antagonism toward women's demands, and lack of support for policies designed to help women.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


Denial of continuing discrimination
1. Discrimination against women is no longer a problem in the United States.*
2. Women often miss out on good jobs due to sexual discrimination.
3. It is rare to see women treated in a sexist manner on television.*
4. On average, people in our society treat husbands and wives equally.*
5. Society has reached the point where women and men have equal opportunities for achievement.*

Antagonism toward women's demands
6. It is easy to understand the anger of women's groups in America.
7. It is easy to understand why women's groups are still concerned about societal limitations of women's opportunities.

Resentment about special favors for women
8. Over the past few years, the government and news media have been showing more concern about the treatment of women than is warranted by women's actual experiences.*

*Items are reverse scored

Response Options:
7-point Likert scale
Strongly agree - 1
Strongly disagree - 7

Scoring Procedures

The item scores are averaged.

Original Citation

Swim, J. K., Aikin, K. J., Hall, W. S., & Hunter, B. A. (1995). Sexism and racism: Old-fashioned and modern prejudices. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(2), 199-214.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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