The RCOPE is a 105-item measure that assesses the full range of religious coping methods. It consists of 21 subscales with five items each including potentially helpful and harmful religious expressions. The short form of the measure with 21 subscales of three items each, can be found here: http://emerge.ucsd.edu/measure-rcopesf/.
Geographies Tested: United States of America
Populations Included: Female, Male
Age Range: Adolescents, Adults
Religious Methods of Coping to Find Meaning
*1. Saw my situation as part of God's plan.
*2. Tried to find a lesson from God in the event.
*3. Tried to see how God might be trying to strengthen me in this situation.
4.Thought that the event might bring me closer to God.
5. Tried to see how the situation could be beneficial spiritually.
*1. Wondered what I did for God to punish me.
*2. Decided that God was punishing me for my sins.
*3. Felt punished by God for my lack of devotion.
4. Wondered if God allowed this event to happen to me because of my sins.
5. Wondered whether God was punishing me because of my lack of faith.
*1. Believed the devil was responsible for my situation.
*2. Felt the situation was the work of the devil.
3. Felt the devil was trying to turn me away from God.
*4. Decided the devil made this happen.
5. Wondered if the devil had anything to do with this situation.
*1. Questioned the power of God.
*2. Thought that some things are beyond God's control.
*3. Realized that God cannot answer all of my prayers.
4. Realized that there were some things that even God could not change.
5. Felt that even God has limits.
Religious Methods of Coping to Gain Control
*1. Tried to put my plans into action together with God.
*2. Worked together with God as partners.
*3. Tried to make sense of the situation with God.
4. Felt that God was working right along with me.
5. Worked together with God to relieve my worries.
*1. Did my best and then turned the situation over to God.
*2. Did what I could and put the rest in God's hands.
*3. Took control over what I could, and gave the rest up to God.
4. Tried to do the best I could and let God do the rest.
5. Turned the situation over to God after doing all that I could.
*1. Pleaded with God to make things turn out okay.
*2. Prayed for a miracle.
*3. Bargained with God to make things better.
4. Made a deal with God so that he would make things better.
5. Pleaded with God to make everything work out.
*1. Tried to deal with my feelings without God's help.
*2. Tried to make sense of the situation without relying on God.
*3. Made decisions about what to do without God's help.
4. Depended on my own strength without support from God.
5. Tried to deal with the situation on my own without God's help.
Religious Methods of Coping to Gain Comfort and Closeness to God
*1. Sought God's love and care.
*2. Trusted that God would be by my side.
*3. Looked to God for strength, support, and guidance.
4. Trusted that God was with me.
5. Sought comfort from God.
*1. Prayed to get my mind off of my problems.
*2. Thought about spiritual matters to stop thinking about my problems.
*3. Focused on religion to stop worrying about my problems.
4. Went to church to stop thinking about this situation.
5. Tried to get my mind off my problems by focusing on God.
*1. Confessed my sins.
*2. Asked forgiveness for my sins.
*3. Tried to be less sinful.
4. Searched for forgiveness from God.
5. Asked for God to help me be less sinful.
*1. Looked for a stronger connection with God.
*2. Sought a stronger spiritual connection with other people.
*3. Thought about how my life is part of a larger spiritual force.
4. Tried to build a strong relationship with a higher power.
5. Tried to experience a stronger feeling of spirituality.
*1. Wondered whether God had abandoned me.
*2. Voiced anger that God didn't answer my prayers.
*3. Questioned God's love for me.
4. Wondered if God really cares.
5. Felt angry that God was not there for me.
*1. Avoided people who weren't of my faith.
*2. Stuck to the teachings and practices of my religion.
*3. Ignored advice that was inconsistent with my faith.
4. Tried to stick with others of my own faith.
5. Stayed away from false religious teachings.
Religious Methods of Coping to Gain Intimacy with Others and Closeness to God
*1. Looked for spiritual support from clergy.
*2. Asked others to pray for me.
*3. Looked for love and concern from the members of my church.
4. Sought support from members of my congregation.
5. Asked clergy to remember me in their prayers.
*1. Prayed for the well-being of others.
*2. Offered spiritual support to family or friends.
*3. Tried to give spiritual strength to others.
4. Tried to comfort others through prayer.
5. Tried to provide others with spiritual comfort.
*1. Disagreed with what the church wanted me to do or believe.
*2. Felt dissatisfaction with the clergy.
*3. Wondered whether my church had abandoned me.
4. Felt my church seemed to be rejecting or ignoring me.
5. Wondered whether my clergy was really there for me.
Religious Methods of Coping to Achieve a Life Transformation
*1. Asked God to help me find a new purpose in life.
*2. Prayed to find a new reason to live.
*3. Prayed to discover my purpose in living.
4. Sought new purpose in life from God.
5. Looked to God for a new direction in life.
*1. Tried to find a completely new life through religion.
*2. Looked for a total spiritual reawakening.
*3. Prayed for a complete transformation of my life.
4. Tried to change my whole way of life and follow a new path—God's path.
5. Hoped for a spiritual rebirth.
*1. Sought help from God in letting go of my anger.
*2. Asked God to help me overcome my bitterness.
*3. Sought God's help in trying to forgive others.
4. Asked God to help me be more forgiving.
5. Sought spiritual help to give up my resentments.
*indicates item is on the 3-item version of the subscale.
Response Options: A 4-point Likert scale ranging from 0 "not at all" to 3 "a great deal."
Pargament, K. I., Koenig, H. G., & Perez, L. M. (2000). The Many Methods of Religious Coping: Development and Initial Validation of the RCOPE. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56(4), 519-543. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(200004)56:4%3C519::AID-JCLP6%3E3.0.CO;2-1
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Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework
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Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing