Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)

The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a 10-item scale measuring postnatal depression of various severity. It can be used as a screening tool for identifying women with postnatal depression.

ITEMS:

In the past 7 days:

1. I have been able to laugh and see the funny side of things

Response Options:
As much as I always could
Not quite so much now
Definitely not so much now
Not at all

2. I have looked forward with enjoyment to things

Response Options:
As much as I ever did
Rather less than I used to
Definitely less than I used to
Hardly at all

3. I have blamed myself unnecessarily when things went wrong

Response Options:
Yes, most of the time
Yes, some of the time
Not very often
No, never

4. I have been anxious or worried for no good reason

Response Options:
No, not at all
Hardly ever
Yes, sometimes
Yes, very often

5. I have felt scared or panicky for no very good reason

Response Options:
Yes, quite a lot
Yes, sometimes
No, not much
No, not at all

6. Things have been getting on top of me

Response Options:
Yes, most of the time I haven’t been able to cope at all
Yes, sometimes I haven’t been coping as well as usual
No, most of the time I have coped quite well
No, I have been coping as well as ever

7. I have been so unhappy that I have had difficulty sleeping

Response Options:
Yes, most of the time
Yes, sometimes
Not very often
No, not at all

8. I have felt sad or miserable

Response Options:
Yes, most of the time
Yes, quite often
Not very often
No, not at all

9. I have been so unhappy that I have been crying

Response Options:
Yes, most of the time
Yes, quite often
Only occasionally
No, never

10. The thought of harming myself has occurred to me

Response Options:
Yes, quite often
Sometimes
Hardly ever
Never

CATEGORIES:


GEOGRAPHIES TESTED:

United Kingdom

POPULATIONS INCLUDED:
Female

AGE RANGE:
Adolescents
Adults

DOWNLOAD MEASURE

Scoring Procedures:

Response categories are scored 0. 1.2, and 3 according to increased severity of the symptom. Items 3, and 5 - 10 are reverse scored. The total score is calculated by adding together the scores for each of the ten items.

PRIMARY CITATION:

Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression: development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The British journal of psychiatry, 150(6), 782-786. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.150.6.782

Pyschometric Score:

FORMATIVE RESEARCH

 Qualitative Research

 Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

 Field Expert Input

 Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

RELIABILITY

 Internal

 Test-retest

 Interrater

VALIDITY

 Content

 Face

 Criterion (gold-standard)

 Construct

Psychometric Scoring

MEDIUM
Total Score: 4.50/9 Points (MEDIUM) 

Citation Frequency

High

KEY

 FULL POINTS
 PARTIAL POINTS
 NOT ASSESSED
 NOT APPLICABLE

For more details, see Scoring Methodology

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