Measure of Adolescent Critical Consciousness

Measure of Adolescent Critical Consciousness (MACC) is a 10-item instrument to measure the levels of critical consciousness among adolescents. This measure is validated among high school Latino/a students and is made up of two subscales: Critical Agency and Critical Behavior.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


Critical agency
1. There are ways that I can contribute to my community
2. I am motivated to try to end racism and discrimination
3. It is important to fight against social and economic inequality
4. I can make a difference in my community
5. More effort is needed to end racism and discrimination
6. It is important to me to contribute to my community
7. In the future, I will participate in activities or groups that struggle against racism and discrimination

Critical behavior
8. I am involved in activities or groups against racism and discrimination
9. I am involved in activities or groups that promote equality and justice
10. I have participated in demonstrations or signed petitions about justice issues

Response Options:
4-point Likert scale
Strongly agree - 1
Strongly disagree - 4

Scoring Procedures

The mean of each of the two subscales is calculated. Higher scores represent higher critical consciousness as measured by critical agency and critical behavior.

Original Citation

McWhirter, E. H., & McWhirter, B. T. (2015). Critical consciousness and vocational development among Latina/o high school youth. Journal of Career Assessment, 24(3), 543-558.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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