Gender Equitable Men (GEM) Scale - Rural India

The Gender Equitable Men (GEM) Scale - Rural India is a 12-item measure of gender ideologies among men. This scale was adapted from the two-domain, 24-item GEM Scale originally validated in Brazil.


Geographies Tested: India

Populations Included: Male

Age Range: Adults


1. It is the man who decides what type of sex to have.
2. Men need sex more than women do.
3. You don't talk about sex, you just do it.
4. Men are always ready to have sex.
5. There are times when a woman deserves to be beaten.
6. If a woman cheats on a man, it is okay for him to hit her.
7. It is okay for a man to hit his wife if she won't have sex with him.
8. A woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together.
9. A woman's most important role is to take care of her home and cook for her family.
10. Changing diapers, giving kids a bath, and feeding the kids are the mother's responsibility.
11. A man should have the final word about decisions in his home.
12. It is a woman's responsibility to avoid getting pregnant.

Response Options:
Do not agree - 1
Partially agree - 2
Agree - 3

Scoring Procedures

Items scores are summed to create a total score ranging from 12-36. Higher scores represent more equitable attitudes.

Original Citation

Fleming, P. J., Silverman, J., Ghule, M., Ritter, J., Battala, M., Velhal, G., Nair, S., Dasgupta, A., Donta, B., Saggurti, N., & Raj, A. (2018). Can a gender equity and family planning intervention for men change their gender ideology? Results from the CHARM intervention in rural India Studies in Family Planning, 49(1), 41-56.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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