Gender Role Beliefs Scale (GRBS)

The Gender Role Beliefs Scale is a 20-item self-reported measure of individual perceptions about gender roles. The scale measures gender role beliefs such as etiquette expected of men or women, household gender roles, and decision making power.


Geographies Tested: Canada

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adults


  1. It is disrespectful for a man to swear in the presence of a lady.
  2. Women should not expect men to offer them seats on buses. (R)
  3. Homosexual relationships should be as socially accepted as heterosexual relationships. (R)
  4. The initiative in courtship should usually come from the man.
  5. It bothers me more to see a woman who is pushy than a man who is pushy.
  6. When sitting down at the table, proper respect demands that the gentleman hold the lady’s chair.
  7. Women should have as much sexual freedom as men. (R)
  8. Women should appreciate the protection and support that men have traditionally given them.
  9. Women with children should not work outside the home if they don’t have to financially.
  10. I see nothing wrong with a woman who doesn’t like to wear skirts or dresses. (R)
  11. The husband should be regarded as the legal representative of the family group in all matters of law.
  12. I like women who are outspoken. (R)
  13. Except perhaps in very special circumstances, a gentleman should never allow a lady to pay the taxi, buy the tickets, or pay the check.
  14. Some equality in marriage is good, but by and large the husband ought to have the main say-so in family matters.
  15. Men should continue to show courtesies to women such as holding open the door or helping them on with their coats.
  16. It is ridiculous for a woman to run a locomotive and for a man to darn socks.
  17. A woman should be as free as a man to propose marriage. (R)
  18. Women should be concerned with their duties of childrearing and house tending, rather than with desires for professional and business careers.
  19. Swearing and obscenity is more repulsive in the speech of a woman than a man.
  20. There are some professions and types of businesses that are more suitable for men than women.

Note: (R) indicates a reverse keyed item.

Response Options:
7-point scale
Strongly agree - 1
Strongly disagree - 7

Scoring Procedures

Scores from all 20 items are summed to create a scale total that ranges from 20 (more traditional gender role beliefs) to 140 (more feminist gender role beliefs). Items marked (R) should be reverse coded.

Original Citation

Kerr, P. S., & Holden, R. R. (1996). Development of the gender role beliefs scale (GRBS). Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11(5), 3.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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