Attitudes Towards Gender Norms Scale

The Attitudes Towards Gender Norms Scale is a 21-item measure of individual attitudes toward gender norms, based on the Gender Equitable Male scale (Pulerwitz and Baker 2008). The items are separated into 3 domains: Manhood and Masculinity, Girls and Women’s Roles, and Boys’ Controlling Behaviors. The scale captures adolescent males’ gender attitudes including aggressiveness, attitudes towards gender normative behavior of men and women, and controlling girls’ behaviors.


Geographies Tested: India

Populations Included: Male

Age Range: Adolescents


Manhood and Masculinity

  • Boys do not remain faithful to their girlfriends for long
  • Boys lose respect if they talk about their problems
  • Boys need to be tough even if they are very young
  • It is bothersome when boys behave like girls
  • There are times when a boy needs to beat his girlfriend
  • Only men should work outside the home

Girls and Women’s Roles

  • Girls cannot do well in Math and Science
  • It’s a girl’s fault if a male teacher sexually harasses her
  • A wife should always obey her husband
  • If a girl says no it naturally means yes
  • Violence against girls is perpetrated by strangers
  • Since girls have to get married they should not be sent for higher education
  • A woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together
  • Girls like to be teased by boys
  • Girls with less clothes provoke boys

Boys’ Controlling Behaviors

A boy is justified in:

  • Telling her which friends she can or cannot talk to or see
  • Not allowing her to go outside alone
  • Pressuring her not to breakup with her boyfriend
  • Telling her what kind of dress she can or cannot wear
  • Telling her what to do all the time
  • Trying to convince her to have sex

Response Options:
5-point scale from Agree to Disagree

Scoring Procedures

Scores are summed to create a scale total ranging from 0 to 84. Total scores are separated into tertiles: 0-28 indicating less gender equitable attitudes, 29-56 for moderately equitable attitudes, and 57-84 for more equitable attitudes.

Original Citation

Das, M., Ghosh, S., Verma, R., O'Connor, B., Fewer, S., Virata, M. C., & Miller, E. (2014). Gender attitudes and violence among urban adolescent boys in India. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 19(1), 99-112. DOI: 10.1080/02673843.2012.716762

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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