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Household Water Insecurity Access Scale (HWIAS)

The Household Water Insecurity Access Scale (HWIAS) is an 8-item measure of water insecurity, or the limited or uncertain availability of safe water or the ability to acquire safe water in socially acceptable ways.

Categories

Geographies Tested: Uganda

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults

Items:

Each item has the following four response options: never, rarely (once or twice), sometimes (3–10 times), and often (more than 10 times).

1. In the past 30 days, how often did you worry about whether your household would have enough water for all of its needs? These needs may include, for example, watering crops or livestock, washing your hands, washing clothes, or any other needs.
2. In the past 30 days, how often did you or any household members collect water for drinking from an undesirable or dirty water source because you could not collect water from a preferred or clean source?
3. In the past 30 days, how often did you or any household members drink water that you thought might not be safe for health?
4. In the past 30 days, how often did you or any household members drink less water than you needed because there was not enough water or because it was too difficult to collect more water?
5. In the past 30 days, how often did you or any household members use less water than you needed because there was not enough water or because it was too difficult to collect water? These needs might include, for example, watering crops or livestock, washing your hands, washing clothes, or any other needs.
6. In the past 30 days, how often was there no water at all in your household because it was too difficult to collect more water? I mean any water at all, whether for watering crops or livestock, washing your hands, washing clothes, or any other needs.
7. In the past 30 days, how often did you or any household members go to sleep at night thirsty because there was not enough water?
8. In the past 30 days, how often did you feel angry or frustrated about not having enough water for the household? I mean any water at all, whether for watering crops or livestock, washing your hands, washing clothes, or any other needs.

Response Options:
Never - 0
Rarely (once or twice)- 1
Sometimes (3–10 times)- 2
Often (more than 10 times)- 3

Scoring Procedures

Responses are added to get a final score, ranging from 0 to 24. Greater scores indicate greater water insecurity,

Original Citation

Tsai, A. C., Kakuhikire, B., Mushavi, R., Vorechovska, D., Perkins, J. M., McDonough, A. Q., & Bangsberg, D. R. (2016). Population-based study of intra-household gender differences in water insecurity: Reliability and validity of a survey instrument for use in rural Uganda. Journal of Water and Health, 14(2), 280-292. https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2015.165

Psychometric Score

Citation Frequency

Ease of Use Score

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

Reliability

Internal

Test-retest

Interrater

Validity

Content

Face

Criterion (gold-standard)

Construct

Ease of Use

Readability

Scoring Clarity

Length

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