Drive for Muscularity

The Drive for Muscularity scale is a 15-item questionnaire developed to measure attitudes and behaviors that reflect the degree of people’s preoccupation with increasing their muscularity. This scale was developed and used in an adolescent population.


Geographies Tested: Canada

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


1. I wish that I were more muscular 2.\ I lift weights to build up muscle. 3. I use protein or energy supplements. 4. I drink weight-gain or protein shakes. 5. I try to consume as many calories as I can in a day. 6. I feel guilty if I miss a weight-training session. 7. I think I would feel more confident if I had more muscle mass. 8. Other people think I work out too with weights too often. 9. I think that I would look better if I gained 10 pounds in bulk. 10. I think about taking anabolic steroids. 11. I think that I would feel stronger if I gained a little more muscle mass. 12. I think that my weight-training schedule interferes with other aspects of my life. 13. I think that my arms are not muscular enough. 14. I think that my chest is not muscular enough. 15. I think that my legs are not muscular enough.

Response Options: 6-point scale from Never to Always

Scoring Procedures

Items are averaged. Higher sores indicate a greater drive for muscularity.

Original Citation

McCreary, D. R., & Sasse, D. K. (2000). An exploration of the drive for muscularity in adolescent boys and girls. Journal of American College Health, 48(6), 297-304.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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