The Social Media Disorder (SMD) is a nine-item scale that measures problematic social media use (SMU) among adolescents. Items cover topics such as preoccupation, tolerance, deception and withdrawal.
We are interested in your experiences with social media. The term social media refers to social network sites (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Google+, Pinterest) and instant messengers (e.g., WhatsApp, Snapchat, Facebook messenger)
1. During the past year, have you regularly found that you can't think of anything else but the moment that you will be able to use social media again?
2. During the past year, have you regularly felt dissatisfied because you wanted to spend more time on social media?
3. During the past year, have you often felt bad when you could not use social media?
4. During the past year, have you tried to spend less time on social media, but failed?
5. During the past year, have you regularly had no interest in hobbies or other activities because you would rather use social media?
6. During the past year, have you regularly had arguments with others because of your social media use?
7. During the past year, have you regularly lied to your parents or friends about the amount of time you spend on social media?
8. During the past year, have you often used social media so you didn't have to think about unpleasant things?
9. During the past year, have you had serious conflict with your parents, brother(s) or sister(s) because of your social media use?
Yes - 1
No - 0
Item scores are summed. Endorsement of a maximum of criterion (score of 1 or lower) is classified as normative SMU. 2-5 criteria is risky SMU and 6-9 is problematic SMU.
Boer, M., Stevens, G. W. J. M., Finkenauer, C., Koning, I. M., & Ejinden, R. J. J. M. v. d. (2021). Validation of the Social Media Disorder Scale in Adolescents: Findings from a large-scale nationally representative sample. Assessment, 0(0), 1-18. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1177/10731911211027232
Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework
Field Expert Input
Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing