Youth Empowerment - Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) is a multi-item measure of empowerment among youth, covering 6 subscales: violence attitudes, digital connectedness, work and earnings, health facility access major asset ownership and reproductive health knowledge.
Geographies Tested: Ethiopia,Haiti,Malawi,Mali,Nepal,Nigeria,Philippines,Senegal,Uganda,Zambia
Populations Included: Female, Male
Age Range: Adolescents
1. Wife beating is justified if:
a. Wife goes out without telling husband
b. Wife neglects the children
c. Wife argues with husband
d. Wife refuses to have sex with husband
e. Wife burns the food
2. Owns a mobile telephone.
3. Uses mobile phone for financial transactions.
4. Has an account in a bank or other financial institution.
5. Use of internet
Yes but not in last 12 months
Yes in last 12 months
6. Frequency of internet use in last month:
Not at all
Less than once a week
At least once a week
Almost every day
7. Currently working
8. Worked in last 12 months
In past year but not currently
10. The following is a big problem to get medical advice/treatment when sick:
a. Getting permission to go.
b. Getting money needed for treatment.
c. Distance to health facility.
d. Not wanting to go alone.
Not a problem
11. Owns house alone or jointly.
12. Owns land alone or jointly.
13. Knows ovulatory cycle.
14. Knows postpartum fecundability.
15. Knowledge of contraceptive methods
Only traditional/folkloric method
The mean of the item responses is calculated.
MacQuarrie, K. L. D. (2021). Measuring youth empowerment. DHS Working Papers No. 179. Rockville, Maryland, USA: ICF.
Ease of Use Score
Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework
Field Expert Input
Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing
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