The Scale of Protective Factors (SPF) is a 24-item measure of specific social and cognitive protective factors that impact the resiliency individuals who have experienced assault. It assesses four sub-scales of protective factors conferring resilience, including social support, social skills, planning and prioritizing behavior, and goal efficacy.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults



Social support My friendsfamily…

  1. Keep me up to speed on important events
  2. See things the same way
  3. Are seen as united
  4. Are supportive of one another
  5. Are optimistic
  6. Spend free time together

Social Skills I am good at…

  1. Socializing with new people
  2. Interacting with others
  3. Making new friendships
  4. Being with other people
  5. Working with others as part of a team
  6. Starting new conversations

Planning Behavior When working on something, I…

  1. Can see the order in which to do things
  2. Plan things out
  3. Organize my time well
  4. Set priorities before I start
  5. Do better if I set a goal
  6. Make a list of things to do in order of importance

Goal efficacy I am confident in my ability to…

  1. Achieve goals
  2. Think out and plan
  3. Make good decisionschoices
  4. Think on my feet
  5. Succeed
  6. Solve problems

Response options: A 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = disagree completely to 5 = completely agree.

Scoring Procedures

Overall scores are obtained by adding each item; scores range from 24 to 120 and subscale scores range from 6 to 30. Overall scores of 64 or lower indicate low resilience, scores between 65 and 84 indicate moderate resilience, and scores of 85 or higher indicate high resilience.

Original Citation

Ponce‐Garcia, E., Madewell, A. N., & Brown, M. E. (2016). Resilience in men and women experiencing sexual assault or traumatic stress: Validation and replication of the scale of protective factors. Journal of traumatic stress, 29(6), 537-545.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


Join the EMERGE Community

to get the latest updates on new measures and guidance for survey researchers