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Reproductive Empowerment Scale

The Reproductive Empowerment Scale is a 20-item tool designed to measure the status of and changes in reproductive empowerment in sub-Saharan African countries. Items assess 5 constructs: reproductive healthcare provider communication, partner communication, decision-making, social support and social norms.

Categories

Geographies Tested: Kenya,Nigeria,Zambia

Populations Included: Female

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults

Items:

Reproductive Health (RH) Care Provider Communication:
1.You and your health care provider talk about using contraception.
2.You can initiate conversations about using contraception with your health care providers.
3.You can ask your health care provider questions about using contraception.
4.You can share your opinions about using contraception with your health care providers.
5.When discussing contraception with your health care provider, she pays attention to what you have to say.

RH Partner Communication
6.You can initiate conversations about using contraception with your partner.
7.You can share your opinions about using contraception with your partner.
8.You can share your opinions about how many children you want to have with your partner
9.You can tell your partner that you don’t feel like having sex without him getting angry, violent, or threatening to leave.
10.When having conversations about sex and sexual reproductive health with your partner, he pays attention to what you have to say.

RH Decision Making
11.You can use contraception even if your partner doesn't want you to.
12.You can refuse sex with your partner if you don't want to have sex.

Response Options:
Strongly Disagree - 1
Disagree - 2
Agree - 3
Strongly Agree - 4

13.Who makes the final decision about whether or not you use contraception?
14.Who do you want to make the final decision about whether or not you use contraception?

Response Options:
Myself - 3
My partner - 2
My partner and myself jointly - 4
My parents - 1
My partner’s parents - 1
Another family member - 1
Healthcare provider - 1
Other (specify) - 1
Don’t know -1

RH Social Support
15.If your partner did not want you to use contraception, you have a friend or family member who could help you convince your partner that you should use contraception.
16.If your partner did not want you to use contraception, you could go to people in your community who know about contraception and could help you convince your partner that you should use contraception.
17.If your partner did not want you to use contraception, you have friends or family who would support you getting contraception anyway.

RH Social Norms
18.Friends or family members you are close to can decide when they want to use contraception.
19.Friends or family members you are close to use contraception even when their partner does not want them to.
20.Friends or family members you are close to think you should be able to decide when to use contraception.

Response Options:
Strongly Disagree - 1
Disagree - 2
Agree - 3
Strongly Agree - 4

Scoring Procedures

Total scale and sub-scale scores are calculated by an average of item scores (each item ranges from 1-4 possible points). Item scores are summed and then divided by the number of items in the scale or sub-scale.

Original Citation

Mandal, M., & Albert, L. M. (2020). Reproductive Empowerment Scale: Psychometric Validation in Nigeria. MEASURE Evaluation, University of North Carolina. https://www.measureevaluation.org/resources/publications/tr-20-393

Psychometric Score

Citation Frequency

Ease of Use Score

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

Reliability

Internal

Test-retest

Interrater

Validity

Content

Face

Criterion (gold-standard)

Construct

Ease of Use

Readability

Scoring Clarity

Length

KEY