Gender Role Socialization

Gender Role Socialization is a 10-item measure that captures the extent to which the respondent's parents encouraged gendered behaviors during the respondent's childhood and adolescence. Participants of both gender are asked 7 questions regarding their mothers and fathers encouragement of certain "masculine" and "feminine" behaviors, such as doing outdoor and indoor chores, and wearing long hair. There are three items that are specific to men and women, respectively. The three items exclusively for women pertain to their parents' encouragement of wearing gender appropriate clothes, being a "tomboy", and being "ladylike". Likewise, for men, items pertain to their parent's encouragement of expressing feelings, engaging in boys' activities, and being "manly".


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adults


Items assess how much each parent encouraged specific behaviors traditionally considered “masculine” or “feminine” while the respondent was growing up.

Women and Men
1. Do outdoor chores
2. Play with girls' toys
3. Play indoors (vs. outdoors)
4. Play with boys' toys
5. Do indoor chores
6. Wear hair long
7. Take care of younger siblings

Women only
8. Gender appropriate clothes
9. Be a "tomboy"
10. Be ladylike

Men only
8. Engage in boys' activities
9. Express feelings
10. Be "manly""macho"

Response Options:
5-point Likert-scale Not at all - 1
Somewhat - 3
Very much - 5

Scoring Procedures

The mean of item scores is calculated for the total measure score.

Original Citation

Raffaelli, M., & Ontai, L. L. (2004). Gender socialization in Latino/a families: Results from two retrospective studies. Sex Roles, 50(5/6), 287-299.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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