Differential Treatment of Daughters and Sons is a 10-item measure of the extent to which participants, and their siblings of different sexes, have been limited by their parental figures during their upbringing.
Participants rate the extent to which they and their cross-sex siblings (or relatives if they had no siblings) had similar or different limits placed on them by their parents while they were growing up.
1. How late you could stay out on school nights
2. How late you could stay out on weekends
3. Where you could go after school
4. Involvement in after-school activities
5. When you could start dating
6. With whom you were allowed to interact
7. Being alone with a member of the other sex
8. Getting a license and learning to drive
9. Getting a job
10. Having friends of the other sex
5-point Likert scale
Relativessiblings had more limits - 1
About the same - 3
I had more limits - 5
The mean of the item scores is calculated for the total measure score.
Raffaelli, M., & Ontai, L. L. (2004). Gender socialization in Latino/a families: Results from two retrospective studies. Sex Roles, 50(5/6), 287-299. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:SERS.0000018886.58945.06
Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework
Field Expert Input
Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing