Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2)

The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) is a 39-item measure of individual engagement in or experience of physical or psychological violence with an intimate partner, based on the Conflict Tactic Scale (Straus, 1979). Each item is asked about both the respondent and the respondent’s partner, for a total of 78 questions. Different aspects captured by the scale include the frequency of physical abuse, verbal abuse, and manipulation. Straus & Mickey 2012 provide additional validation assessment for the Conflict Tactics Scale in their 32 nation study the International Dating Violence Study, as well as psychometric review of 10 other studies that used the scale. A short form of the CTS2 is the CTS2S which is a 20- item scale available on the EMERGE website.

High Psychometric Score

ITEMS:

How often did this happen?

1. I showed my partner I cared even though we disagreed.
2. My partner showed care for me even though we disagreed.
3. I explained my side of a disagreement to my partner.
4. My partner explained his or her side of a disagreement to me.
5. I insulted or swore at my partner.
6. My partner did this to me.
7. I threw something at my partner that could hurt.
8. My partner did this to me.
9. I twisted my partner’s arm or hair.
10. My partner did this to me.
11. I had a sprain, bruise, or small cut because of a fight with my partner.
12. My partner had a sprain, bruise, or small cut because of a fight with me.
13. I showed respect for my partner’s feelings about an issue.
14. My partner showed respect for my feelings about an issue.
15. I made my partner have sex without a condom.
16. My partner did this to me.
17. I pushed or shoved my partner.
18. My partner did this to me.
19. I used force (like hitting, holding down, or using a weapon) to make my partner have oral or anal sex.
20. My partner did this to me.
21. I used a knife or gun on my partner.
22. My partner did this to me.
23. I passed out from being hit on the head by my partner in a fight.
24. My partner passed out from being hit on the head in a fight with me.
25. I called my partner fat or ugly.
26. My partner called me fat or ugly.
27. I punched or hit my partner with something that could hurt.
28. My partner did this to me.
29. I destroyed something belonging to my partner.
30. My partner did this to me.
31. I went to a doctor because of a fight with my partner.
32. My partner went to a doctor because of a fight with me.
33. I choked my partner.
34. My partner did this to me.
35. I shouted or yelled at my partner.
36. My partner did this to me.
37. I slammed my partner against a wall.
38. My partner did this to me.
39. I said I was sure we could work out a problem.
40. My partner was sure we could work it out.
41. I needed to see a doctor because of a fight with my partner, but I didn’t.
42. My partner needed to see a doctor because of a fight with me, but didn’t.
43. I beat up my partner.
44. My partner did this to me 45. I grabbed my partner.
46. My partner did this to me.
47. I used force (like hitting, holding down, or using a weapon) to make my partner have sex.
48. My partner did this to me.
49. I stomped out of the room or house or yard during a disagreement.
50. My partner did this to me.
51. I insisted on sex when my partner did not want to (but did not use physical force).
52. My partner did this to me.
53. I slapped my partner.
54. My partner did this to me.
55. I had a broken bone from a fight with my partner.
56. My partner had a broken bone from a fight with me.
57. I used threats to make my partner have oral or anal sex.
58. My partner did this to me.
59. I suggested a compromise to a disagreement.
60. My partner did this to me.
61. I burned or scalded my partner on purpose.
62. My partner did this to me.
63. I insisted my partner have oral or anal sex (but did not use physical force).
64. My partner did this to me.
65. I accused my partner of being a lousy lover.
66. My partner accused me of this.
67. I did something to spite my partner.
68. My partner did this to me.
69. I threatened to hit or throw something at my partner.
70. My partner did this to me.
71. I felt physical pain that still hurt the next day because of a fight with my partner.
72. My partner still felt physical pain the next day because of a fight we had.
73. I kicked my partner.
74. My partner did this to me.
75. I used threats to make my partner have sex. 76. My partner did this to me.
77. I agreed to try a solution to a disagreement my partner suggested.
78. My partner agreed to try a solution I suggested.

Response Options:
Once in the past year - 1
Twice in the past year - 2
3-5 times in the past year - 3
6-10 times in the past year - 4
11-20 times in the past year - 5
More than 20 times in the past year - 6
Not in the past year, but it did happen before - 7
This has never happened - 0

CATEGORIES:


GEOGRAPHIES TESTED:

United States of America

POPULATIONS INCLUDED:
Female
Male

AGE RANGE:
Adolescents
Adults

DOWNLOAD MEASURE

Scoring Procedures:

The response options include 8 choices (Categories 1-7 and 0). An answer of Category 1 or 2 is coded as the corresponding number of times the specified incident occurred (once or twice in the past year). For Categories 3-5, the midpoint of the category is coded. For example: Category 3 (3-5 times) is coded as 4, Category 4 (6-10 times) is coded as 8, and Category 5 (11-20 times) is coded as 15. Category 6 (More than 20 times) should be coded as 25. Category 7 is given a score of 0 if scores for the previous year do not reflect abuse or conflict.

Alternatively, the entire scale may be scored dichotomously. Categories 1-7 (any occurrence of abuse) would indicate prevalence of psychological or physical attacks – all being scored as 1. Category 0 (this has never happened) would then be scored as 0.

PRIMARY CITATION:

Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Boney-McCoy, S., & Sugarman, D. B. (1996). The revised conflict tactics scales (CTS2) development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of family issues, 17(3), 283-316. https://doi.org/10.1177/019251396017003001

Pyschometric Score:

FORMATIVE RESEARCH

 Qualitative Research

 Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

 Field Expert Input

 Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

RELIABILITY

 Internal

 Test-retest

 Interrater

VALIDITY

 Content

 Face

 Criterion (gold-standard)

 Construct

Psychometric Scoring

HIGH
Total Score: 5.50/8 Points (HIGH) 

Citation Frequency

High

KEY

 FULL POINTS
 PARTIAL POINTS
 NOT ASSESSED
 NOT APPLICABLE

For more details, see Scoring Methodology

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