Revised Scale of Economic Abuse (SEA2)

The Revised Scale of Economic Abuse (SEA2) is a 14-item measure of economic abuse experienced by women and perpetrated by their partners. SEA2 covers two sub-constructs: economic restriction, and economic exploitation. It is the updated version of the Scale of Economic Abuse (SEA).


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female

Age Range: Adults


Using the 0–4 scale below, during your relationship, how often did your partner do the following:

1. Keep you from having the money you needed to buy food, clothes, or other necessities
2. Keep financial information from you
3. Decide how you could spend money rather than letting you spend it how you saw fit
4. Make you ask himher for money
5. Hide money so that you could not find it
6. Demand that you give himher receipts or change when you spent money
7. Keep you from having a job or going to work
8. Make you use your money to buy himher things or pay hisher bills when you didn’t want to
9. Spend hisher money however heshe wanted while your money went to pay for necessities
10. Take out a loan or buy something on credit in your name without your permission
11. Make you take out a loan or buy something on credit when you didn’t want to
12. Put bills in your name, leaving you to pay them
13. Force or pressure you to give himher your savings or other assets
14. Steal your property

Response Options:
Never - 0
Hardly ever - 1
Sometimes - 2
Often - 3
Very often - 4

Scoring Procedures

Not Available

Original Citation

Adams, A. E., Greeson, M. R., Littwin, A. K., & Javorka, M. (2020). The Revised Scale of Economic Abuse (SEA2): Development and initial psychometric testing of an updated measure of economic abuse in intimate relationships. Psychology of Violence, 10(3), 268-278.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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