Rights and Privileges of Males Scale

The Rights and Privileges of Males Scale is a 10-item clinician-administered subscale measure of individual attitudes toward male gender roles. The key domains covered by the scale are decision making power, rights to education, and gender roles in the household.


Geographies Tested: Egypt

Populations Included: Female

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


1. It is important that sons have more education than daughters.
2. Daughters should be sent to school only if they are not needed to help at home.
3. The most important reason that sons should be more educated than daughters is so that they can better look after their parents when they are older.
4. If there is a limited amount of money to pay for tutoring, it should be spent on sons first.
5. A woman should take good care of her own children and not worry about other people’s affairs.
6. Women should leave politics to the men.
7. A woman has to have a husband or sons or some other male kinsman to protect her.
8. The only thing a woman can really rely on in her old age is her sons.
9. A good woman never questions her husband’s opinions, even if she is not sure she agrees with them.
10. When it is a question of children’s health, it is best to do whatever the father wants.

Response Options:
Agree - 1
Disagree - 2
Don't know

Scoring Procedures

An item score of 1 represents a more traditional response and 2 is a more egalitarian response. The total scale score is a mean of the items ranging from 1 to 2. This score is a continuum from traditional beliefs at the lower end of the scale to egalitarian beliefs (less agreement with men having more rights and privileges than women) at the upper end.

Original Citation

Waszak, C., Severy, L. J., Kafafi, L., & Badawi, I. (2001). Fertility behavior and psychological stress: The mediating influence of gender norm beliefs among Egyptian women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 25(3), 197-208.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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