The Household Water Insecurity Experiences (HWISE) Scale is an 11-item measure to quantify the water insecurity faced at the household level in low and middle income countries.
Geographies Tested: Ghana
Populations Included: Female, Male
Age Range: Adults
In the last four weeks …
1. How frequently did you or anyone
in your household worry you
would not have enough water for
all of your household needs?
2. How frequently has your household water supply from your main water source been interrupted?
3. How frequently has there not been enough water in the household to wash clothes?
4. How frequently have you or anyone in your household had to change schedules or plans due to problems with your water situation, such as problems getting or distributing water within the household? Activities that may have been interrupted include caring for others, doing household chores, etc.
5. How frequently have you or anyone in your household had to change what was being eaten because there wasn’t enough water (e.g., for washing foods, cooking, etc.)?
6. How frequently have you or anyone in your household had to go without washing hands after dirty activities (e.g., defecating or changing diapers, cleaning animal dung) because of problems with water?
7. How frequently have you or anyone in your household had to go without washing their body because there wasn’t enough water?
8. How frequently has there not been as much water to drink as you would like for you or anyone in your household?
9. How frequently did you or anyone in your household feel angry about your water situation?
10. How frequently have you or anyone in your household gone to sleep thirsty?
11. How frequently has there been no water whatsoever in your household?
Never (0 times) - 0
Rarely (1–2 times) - 1
Sometimes (3–10 times) - 2
Often or always (11–20 times or more than 20 times) - 3
Item scores are summed to create the total measure score.
Sidote, M. N., Goodman, Z. T., Paraggio, C. L., Tutu, R. A., & Stoler, J. (2022). Measurement invariance of a household water insecurity metric in Greater Accra, Ghana: Implications for test-retest reliability. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 240, 113922. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2022.113922
Ease of Use Score
Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework
Field Expert Input
Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing