Sexual and Reproductive Empowerment(SRE) Scale for Adolescents and Young Adults

Sexual and Reproductive Empowerment(SRE) Scale for Adolescents and Young Adults is a 23-item measure of the latent construct of sexual and reproductive empowerment among adolescents and young adults. It covers seven subscales: comfort talking with partner; choice of partners, marriage, and children; parental support; sexual safety; self-love; sense of future; and sexual pleasure.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


Each of the following statements may or may not apply to you. Please rate how true each statement is for you.

Comfort talking with partner
1. If I had a romantic partner, I would feel comfortable talking about whether or not I want to have children with them.
2. If I had a sexual partner, I would feel comfortable telling that person if I wanted to use a method to protect against infection or pregnancy, even when they didn’t want to.
3. If I had a romantic partner, I would feel comfortable voicing disagreements with them.
Choice of partners, marriage and children
4. I can freely choose if I get married.
5. I can freely choose who I marry.
6. I have the power to control if and when I have children.
Parental support
7. I have a parent/guardian who would help me with my problems and troubles if I needed.
8. I have a parent or guardian who accepts me as I am.
9. I have a parent or guardian who trusts me to make the right decisions.
10. I have a parent/guardian who helps me achieve my goals in life.
Sexual safety
11. I am able to do the things I want to do without worrying about my safety.
12. Walking down the street, I feel like my body is my own.
13. I do not feel afraid that I will be forced to do something sexually when I don't want to.
14. I feel safe in my current living situation.
15. I like myself.
16. I am worthy of love.
17. I know my body well.
18. My body belongs to me.
Sense of future
19. I can imagine what my future will be like.
20. I have an idea of how I can eventually reach my goals.
Sexual pleasure
21. My sexual needs or desires are important.
22. I think it would be important to focus on my own pleasure as well as my partner's during sexual experiences.
23. I expect to enjoy sex.

Response Options:
Not at all true- 0
A little true- 1
Moderately true- 2
Very true- 3
Extremely true- 4

Scoring Procedures

The score for each of the subscales is calculated as the sum of the items in the subscale. If there are any missing item responses, the weighted sum should be calculated using the following formula: Weighted subscale score = actual subscale sum * subscale items / non-missing subscale items. The overall SRE scale score is calculated as the sum of each subscale score, or the sum of all 23 scale items.

Original Citation

Upadhyay, U. D., Danza, P. Y., Neilands, T. B., Gipson, J. D., Brindis, C. D., Hindin, M. J., Foster, D. G., & Dworkin, S. L. (2020). Development and validation of the Sexual and Reproductive Empowerment Scale for Adolescents and Young Adults. Journal of Adolescent Health.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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