Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a 20-item mood scale consisting of 10 items for both positive and negative affect. Respondents indicate how often they exhibit each characteristic at various time intervals.
Geographies Tested: United States of America
Age Range: Adults
This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and then mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extent [INSERT APPROPRIATE TIME INSTRUCTIONS HERE]. Use the following scale to record your answers.
9. Proud 10. Attentive
Very slightly or not at all - 1
A little - 2
Moderately - 3
Quite a bit - 4
Time options with instructions
Moment: you feel this way right now, that is, at the present moment
Today: you have felt this way today
Past few days: you have felt this way during the past few days
Week: you have felt this way during the past week
Past few weeks: you have felt this way during the past few weeks
Year: you have felt this way during the past year
General: you generally feel this way, that is, how you feel on the average
The mean score of each subscale is calculated. Higher scores indicate higher frequency of positive or negative effect.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of Brief Measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1243
Ease of Use Score
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Field Expert Input
Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing
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