Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)

Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a 20-item mood scale consisting of 10 items for both positive and negative affect. Respondents indicate how often they exhibit each characteristic at various time intervals.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included:

Age Range: Adults


This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and then mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extent [INSERT APPROPRIATE TIME INSTRUCTIONS HERE]. Use the following scale to record your answers.

Positive Affect
1. Enthusiastic
2. Interested
3. Determined
4. Excited
5. Inspired
6. Alert
7. Active
8. Strong
9. Proud 10. Attentive

Negative Affect
11. Scared
12. Afraid
13. Upset
14. Distressed
15. Jittery
16. Nervous
17. Ashamed
18. Guilty
19. Irritable
20. Hostile

Response Options:
Very slightly or not at all - 1
A little - 2
Moderately - 3
Quite a bit - 4

Time options with instructions
Moment: you feel this way right now, that is, at the present moment
Today: you have felt this way today
Past few days: you have felt this way during the past few days
Week: you have felt this way during the past week
Past few weeks: you have felt this way during the past few weeks
Year: you have felt this way during the past year
General: you generally feel this way, that is, how you feel on the average

Scoring Procedures

The mean score of each subscale is calculated. Higher scores indicate higher frequency of positive or negative effect.

Original Citation

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of Brief Measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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