Women's Agency in Egypt

Women's Agency in Egypt uses 15 items from the national Egypt Labor Market Panel (ELMP) survey in which women were asked about their individual experiences and perceptions relating to women empowerment. The items are separated into three related but distinct dimensions: influence in family decisions (e.g., spending choices), freedom of movement in public spaces (e.g., visiting neighbors), and gender violence attitudes or permissiveness towards partner violence (e.g., husband beating wife for refusing sex).


Geographies Tested: Egypt

Populations Included: Female

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


Dimension: Influence in Family Decisions

Who in your family usually has the final say on the following decisions?
1. Making large household purchases
2. Making household purchases for daily needs
3. Visits to friends, family, or other relatives
4. What food should be cooked each day
5. Getting medical treatment or advice for yourself
6. Buying clothes for herself

Response options:
SOE* - 1
Respondent and SOE* - 2
Respondent Alone - 3

*SOE = Husband or someone else, others

Dimension: Freedom of Movement in Public Spaces

If you want to go to any of the following places, can you go
7. Going to the doctorhealth unit for treatment
8. Taking children to the health unit-doctor
9. The house of relatives-friends-neighbors

Response options:
I cannot go alone - 1
I need permission - 2
Tell them only that I am going - 3
Without permission - 4

Dimension: Gender Violence Attitudes

In your opinion is a husband justified in hitting his wife in each of the following situations:
10. When she burns the food
11. When she neglects the children
12. When she argues with him
13. When she talks to other men
14. When she wastes his money
15. When she refuses him sex

Response options:
Yes - 0
No - 1

Scoring Procedures

Not specified.

Original Citation

Yount, K. M., VanderEnde, K. E., Dodell, S., & Cheong, Y. F. (2016). Measurement of Women’s Agency in Egypt: A National Validation Study. Social Indicators Research, 128(3), 1171-1192. doi: 10.1007/s11205-015-1074-7

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Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








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