Reproductive Coercion Scale - Kenya

The Reproductive Coercion Scale - Kenya is an 11-tem measure and an adaptation of the measure previously validated it in the United States found here. This measure includes two context-specific items in addition to retaining the original 9 items. This measure assesses experiences of male partner inference with family planning methods, contraceptive sabotage and pregnancy pressure from other family members.


Geographies Tested: Kenya

Populations Included: Female

Age Range: Adults


1. Told you not to use any birth control (like the pill, shot, coil, etc.)
2. Said he would leave you if you didn't get pregnant
3. Told you he would have a baby with someone else if you didn't get pregnant
4. Taken your birth control (like pills) away from you or kept you from going to the clinic to get birth control
5. Hurt you physically because you did not agree to get pregnant
6. Made you have sex without a condom so you would get pregnant
7. Taken off the condom while you were having sex, so you would get pregnant
8. Put holes in the condom so you would get pregnant
9. Broken the condom on purpose while you were having sex so you would get pregnant
10. Forced you to remove your IUDcoil or implant
11. Forced you to use birth control when you did not want to

Response Options:
Yes - 1
No - 0

Scoring Procedures

The total scale and sub-scale scores can be calculated in two ways: 1) as a binary summary score based on any experience of at least one of the items or 2) a continuous score across any experience (range from 0-9). The second scoring option is recommended in a high-prevalence context, but both methods can be explored.

Original Citation

Wood, S. N., Kennedy, S. R., Akumu, I., Tallam, C., Asira, B., Hameeduddin, Z., McGready, J., Zimmerman, L. A., Kennedy, C. E., Glass, N., & Decker, M. (2020). Reproductive coercion among intimate partner violence survivors in Nairobi. Studies in Family Planning, 51(4), 343-360.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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