Adoption Norms and Stigma Scale

The Adoption Norms and Stigma Scale is a 19-item tool measuring norms and stigma around adoption decisions in the context of unintended pregnancy. The scale uses items on hypothetical situations of a young woman who has chosen those pregnancy decisions. Items are organized into 4 sub-scales: conditional acceptability, anticipated reactions, stereotypes and attitudes.


High Psychometric Score

ITEMS:

Conditional Acceptability
1. If your family will not support you in having a baby, it’s okay to place your child for adoption*
2. If the man involved in the pregnancy will not support you in having a baby, it’s okay to place your child for adoption*

Response Options:
Strongly disagree - 1
Disagree - 2
Neither agree nor disagree - 3
Agree - 4
Strongly agree - 5

Anticipated Reactions
If I got pregnant accidentally, and decided to place the baby for adoption, the people who matter most to me:
3. Would be disappointed
4. Would be happy*
5. Would be mad
6. Would be surprised
7. Would understand*
8. Would be supportive*
9. Would be ashamed

Response Options:
Extremely unlikely - 1
Unlikely - 2
Neutral - 3
Likely - 4
Extremely likely - 5

Stereotypes
Women my age who decide to place the baby for adoption after becoming pregnant accidentally:
10. Are usually low income
11. Usually are trying to keep their man
12. Usually are not well educated
13. Usually end up on welfare

Response Options:
Strongly disagree - 1
Disagree - 2
Neither agree nor disagree - 3
Agree - 4
Strongly agree - 5

Attitudes
14.Women who place a baby for adoption regret it later.
15. In your opinion, how irresponsible is a woman your age who places her baby for adoption
16. In your opinion, how mature is a woman your age who places her baby for adoption?*
17. In your opinion, how selfish is a woman your age who places her baby for adoption?
18. In your opinion, how strong is a woman your age who places her baby for adoption?*
19. In your opinion, how cold/heartless is a woman your age who places her baby for adoption?

Response Options:
Not at all - 1
A little bit - 2
Somewhat - 3
Quite - 4
Extremely - 5

*Items reverse coded during scoring

CATEGORIES:


GEOGRAPHIES TESTED:

United States of America

POPULATIONS INCLUDED:
Female

AGE RANGE:
Adolescents
Adults

DOWNLOAD MEASURE

Scoring Procedures:

Mean scores of sub-scales and total scale are calculated.

PRIMARY CITATION:

Rice, W. S., Turan, B., Stringer, K. L., Helova, A., White, K., Cockrill, K., & Turan, J. M. (2017). Norms and stigma regarding pregnancy decisions during an unintended pregnancy: Development and predictors of scales among young women in the U.S. South. PLoS ONE, 12(3), e0174210. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174210

Psychometric Score:

FORMATIVE RESEARCH

 Qualitative Research

 Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

 Field Expert Input

 Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

RELIABILITY

 Internal

 Test-retest

 Interrater

VALIDITY

 Content

 Face

 Criterion (gold-standard)

 Construct

Psychometric Scoring

HIGH
Total Score: 7.00/8 Points (HIGH) 

Citation Frequency

LOW

KEY

 FULL POINTS
 PARTIAL POINTS
 NOT ASSESSED
 NOT APPLICABLE

For more details, see Scoring Methodology

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