Economic Stress

Economic Stress is a 10-item measure of the respondent's perception of financial difficulties faced by the family. Items include perception of whether the family income fulfills household needs, debt and comparison of the economic situation over time. Items are chosen from the Slow Fertility Transition Project in Egypt.


Geographies Tested: Egypt

Populations Included: Female

Age Range: Adults


1. How satisfied are you with your husband's current work situation? Very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, somewhat unsatisfied, or very unsatisfied?

Response Options:
Very satisfied - 1
Somewhat satisfied - 2
Somewhat unsatisfied - 3
Very unsatisfied - 4
Don't know - 8

2. Do you think your household income is enough to cover your basic needs (from food, education, health, child care...)?

Response Options:
Yes - 1
No - 2

3. How does your household's current income compare to this minimum? Would you say [minimum stated earlier] it is far above the minimum, a little above, about at the minimum, a little below the minimum, or far below?

Response Options:
Far above - 1
Little above - 2
At minimum - 3
Little below - 4
Far below - 5

Last month did you have any difficulty paying for:
4. Food and daily household supplies
5. Medical expenses for adult
6. Infant and child care & their medical expenses
7. Children's education
8. Installments or debt repayment

Response Options:
Yes - 1
No - 2
Not applicable - 7

9. Does your household owe any money to individuals or professional creditors? Allows for multiple answers

Response Options:
Yes - 1
Yes, buying things on credit - 2
No - 3
Do not know - 8

10. How does the economic situation of your household now compare with one year ago? Is it better, same, or worse?

Response Options:
Better - 1
Same - 2
Worse - 3

Scoring Procedures

Not Available

Original Citation

El-Zeini, L. O. (2008). The path to replacement fertility in Egypt: Acceptance, preference, and achievement. Studies in Family Planning, 39(3), 161-176.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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