Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Male Alcohol-Related Aggression (BAMARA) Inventory-Short Form

Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Male Alcohol-Related Aggression (BAMARA) Inventory-Short Form is a 15-item measure of the extent to which men agree with statements referring to opinions about alcohol and physical fights between men at bars. Items in this measure cover 9 subscales relating to their own opinions regarding the acceptability of these situations as well as the perception of the their peers. This is the abbreviated version of the 53-item long form measure.


Geographies Tested: Canada

Populations Included: Male

Age Range: Adults


Expected negative consequences
1. I'd feel pretty bad about myself the next day if I got into a fight at a bar*
2. Getting into a fight at a bar would ruin my evening*

Expected positive consequences
3. I'd feel proud of myself for getting into a fight at a bar if I did it to back up a friend
4. Sometimes it's exciting to be part of a bar fight

Personal approval
5. It's okay to get into a fight with a guy who tries to push you around at a bar

Perceived male peer approval
6. My male friends see nothing wrong with getting into the occasional bar fight

Perceived female peer approval
7. My female friends think it's okay for a guy to get into a fight with guys who insult his datepartner

Perceived normality
8. It's no big deal for guys to fight at a bar
9. Fighting is a normal part of going to bars

Relaxed norms when drinking
10. It's okay to get rowdy when drinking
11. It's okay to do crazy things when drinking

Alcohol as an excuse
12. It's more acceptable for guys to fight when they're drunk than when they're sober
13. Guys get away with being aggressive if they are drunk at the time

Male honor
14. Guys are cowards if they back down from a fight at a bar
15. I'd be ashamed of myself if I didn't stand up to a guy who was threatening to fight me at a bar

Response Options:
Strongly disagree - 1
Disagree - 2
Neither disagree nor agree - 3
Agree - 4
Strongly agree - 5

*Items are reverse scored

Scoring Procedures

Not Available

Original Citation

Wells, S., Tremblay, P. F., & Graham, K. (2013). Understanding men's aggression in bars: Development of the Beliefs and Attitudes toward Male Alcohol-Related Aggression (BAMARA) inventory. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 37 Suppl 1, E260-270.

Psychometric Score

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Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








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