Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS)

The Sexual Assertiveness Scale is an 18-item self-reported measure of individual behaviors associated with initiating sex, based on the Scale of Sexual Experience (Brady and Levitt 1965) available here. The items are separated into three domains: Initiation, Refusal, and Pregnancy-STD Prevention. The aspects of sexual assertiveness in women captured by the scale include communication about sex with an intimate partner and condom use.


High Psychometric Score

ITEMS:

Initiation

1. I begin sex with my partner if I want to.
2. I let my partner know if I want my partner to touch my genitals.
3. I wait for my partner to touch my genital instead of letting my partner know that’s what I want. (R)
4. I wait for my partner to touch my breasts instead of letting my partner know that’s what I want. (R)
5. I let my partner know If I want to have genitals kissed.
6. Women should wait for men to start things like breast touching. (R)

Refusal

7. I give in and kiss if my partner pressures me, even if I already said no. (R)
8. I put my mouth on my partner’s genitals if my partner wants me to even if I don’t want to. (R)
9. I refuse to let my partner touch my breasts if I don’t want that, even if my partner insists.
10. I have sex if my partner wants me to, even if I don’t want to. (R)
11. If I said no, I won’t let my partner touch my genitals even if my partner pressures me.
12. I refuse to have sex if I don’t want to, even if my partner insists.

Pregnancy – STD Prevention

13. I have sex without a condom or latex barrier if my partner doesn’t like them, even if I want to use one. (R)
14. I have sex without using a condom or latex barrier if my partner insists, even if I don’t want to. (R)
15. I make sure my partner and I use a condom or latex barrier when we have sex.
16. I have sex without using a condom or latex barrier if my partner wants. (R)
17. I insist on using a condom or latex barrier if I want to, even if my partner doesn’t like them.
18. I refuse to have sex if my partner refuses to use a condom or latex barrier.

Note: R in parentheses after items denotes the item was reverse scored.

Response Options:
Each item was rated on a 5-point scale.
Never, 0% of the time - 1
Sometimes, about 25% of the time - 2
About 50% of the time - 3
Usually, about 75% of the time - 4
Always, 100% of the time - 5

CATEGORIES:


GEOGRAPHIES TESTED:

United States of America

POPULATIONS INCLUDED:
Female

AGE RANGE:
Adolescents
Adults

DOWNLOAD MEASURE

Scoring Procedures:

Not Available

PRIMARY CITATION:

Morokoff, P. J., Quina, K., Harlow, L. L., Whitmire, L., Grimley, D. M., Gibson, P. R., & Burkholder, G. J. (1997). Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) for women: Development and validation. Journal of personality and social psychology, 73(4), 790. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.73.4.790

Psychometric Score:

FORMATIVE RESEARCH

 Qualitative Research

 Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

 Field Expert Input

 Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

RELIABILITY

 Internal

 Test-Retest

 Interrater

VALIDITY

 Content

 Face

 Criterion (gold-standard)

 Construct

Psychometric Scoring

HIGH
Total Score: 5.50/8 Points (HIGH) 

Citation Frequency

HIGH

KEY

 FULL POINTS
 PARTIAL POINTS
 NOT ASSESSED
 NOT APPLICABLE

For more details, see Scoring Methodology

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