Critical Consciousness Scale (CCS)

The Critical Consciousness Scale (CCS) is a 22-item measure of the capacity of oppressed or marginalized people to critically analyze their social and political conditions, endorsement of societal equality, and action to change perceived inequities. The measure captures notions of critical reflection and critical action required to address sociopolitical inequities.


High Psychometric Score

ITEMS:

Critical Reflection: Perceived Inequality

1. Certain racial or ethnic groups have fewer chances to get a good high school education
2. Poor children have fewer chances to get a good high school education
3. Certain racial or ethnic groups have fewer chances to get good jobs
4. Women have fewer chances to get good jobs
5. Poor people have fewer chances to get good jobs
6. Certain racial or ethnic groups have fewer chances to get ahead
7. Women have fewer chances to get ahead
8. Poor people have fewer chances to get ahead

Critical Reflection: Egalitarianism

9. It is a good thing that certain groups are at the top and other groups are at the bottom [reverse coded]
10. It would be good if groups could be equal
11. Group equality should be our ideal
12. All groups should be given an equal chance in life
13. We would have fewer problems if we treated people more equally

Response Options:
A 6-point Likert-type agreement scale ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”

Critical Action: Socio-Political Participation

14. Participated in a civil rights group or organization
15. Participated in a political party, club or organization
16. Wrote a letter to a school, community newspaper, or publication about a social or political issue
17. Contacted a public official by phone, mail, or email to tell him or her how you felt about a social or political issue
18. Joined in a protest march, political demonstration, or political meeting
19. Worked on a political campaign
20. Participated in a discussion about a social or political issue
21. Signed an email or written petition about a social or political issue
22. Participated in a human rights, gay rights, or women’s rights organization or group

Response Options:
A 5-point behavioral frequency scale from “never did this” to “at least once a week”

CATEGORIES:


GEOGRAPHIES TESTED:

United States of America

POPULATIONS INCLUDED:
Female
Male

AGE RANGE:
Adolescents
Adults

DOWNLOAD MEASURE

Scoring Procedures:

Mean scores are calculated. Authors specify that total scores for the CCS should not be computed. Instead, each of the three CCS sub-scales should be computed and considered independently, as each factor appears to measure a somewhat distinct aspect of CC.

PRIMARY CITATION:

Diemer, M. A., Rapa, L. J., Park, C. J., & Perry, J. C. (2017). Development and validation of the Critical Consciousness Scale. Youth & Society, 49(4), 461-483.

Psychometric Score:

FORMATIVE RESEARCH

 Qualitative Research

 Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

 Field Expert Input

 Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

RELIABILITY

 Internal

 Test-retest

 Interrater

VALIDITY

 Content

 Face

 Criterion (gold-standard)

 Construct

Psychometric Scoring

HIGH
Total Score: 5.50/8 Points (HIGH) 

Citation Frequency

HIGH

KEY

 FULL POINTS
 PARTIAL POINTS
 NOT ASSESSED
 NOT APPLICABLE

For more details, see Scoring Methodology

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