Motivation for Childbearing in HIV-Infected Women

Motivation for Childbearing in HIV-Infected Women is a 13-item measure of the factors that may motivate or deter women with HIV to have children.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female

Age Range: Adults


Motivators for having a baby
1. I would like to have a baby even though I have HIV so I can leave something of value if I die.
2. A baby would be a positive influence in my life right now.
3. I want a baby because it will be someone to love.
4. My husband or partner wants a baby.
5. Having a baby would give me someone that really loves me.
6. If I had a baby and got real sick, my family would give the baby a good home.
7. I want to have a baby even though I am HIV positive because I want to leave part of myself to my husband or partner as a gift.
8. Even if I am HIV positive, if I get pregnant it is my God's will that I have aanother baby.

Deterrents for having a baby
9. I wouldn't want to have a baby because I would have to leave it alone if I get real sick or die.*
10. It wouldn't be fair to my family to have a baby that they will have to care for and raise.*
11. If I had a baby, it would most likely get sick.*
12. Having a baby would put too much stress on my body now.*
13. Because I am in good health, having a baby will make me become ill.*

Response Options:
4-point Likert scale
Strongly disagree - 1
Strongly agree - 4

*Items are reverse scored

Scoring Procedures

Items scores are summed to create the total measure score, ranging from 13 to 52. Higher scores indicate higher motivation to have children.

Original Citation

Sowell, R. L., Phillips, K. D., & Misener, T. R. (1999). HIV-Infected women and motivation to add children to their families. Journal of Family Nursing, 5(3), 316-331.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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