Violence in Sexual Relationships

Violence in Relationships is a 6-item measure of endorsement of violence as a norm for sexual relationships. There are separate scales for men and women and the measure has been developed and tested in South Africa.


Geographies Tested: South Africa

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adults


1. If my partner came to my home and I was not there, I would be in trouble.
2. I have sometimes had sex with my partner when I did not want to.
3. If he felt that I was with someone else, my partner would beat me.
4. My partner sometimes ends up forcing me to do something I don’t want to do.
5. My partner would beat me if I went somewhere without telling him.
6. My partner sometimes gets angry in such a way that he hits me.

1. If I went to my partner’s home and she was not there, she would be in trouble.
2. My partner has sometimes had sex with me when she did not want to.
3. If I felt that my partner was with someone else, I would beat her.
4. I sometimes end up forcing my partner to do something she doesn’t want to do.
5. I would beat my partner if she went somewhere without telling me.
6. I sometimes get angry in such a way that I hit my partner.

Response Options:
4-point Likert scale
Strongly disagree - 1
Strongly agree - 4

Scoring Procedures

Not Available

Original Citation

Harrison, A., O'Sullivan, L. F., Hoffman, S., Dolezal, C., & Morrell, R. (2006). Gender role and relationship norms among young adults in South Africa: Measuring the context of masculinity and HIV risk. Journal of Urban Health, 83(4), 709-722.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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