Gender Norms Regarding Contraception

Gender Norms Regarding Contraception uses 17 items consisting of the following two gender-equitable attitudes: attitudes towards couples’ family planning decisions (9 items) and attitudes towards family planning self-efficacy (8 items). Items are based on the Theory of Gender and Power (Connell, 1987) and have been used to examine the association between changes in gender norms and modern contraceptive use over time.

Warning Flag

ITEMS:

Attitudes towards couples’ family planning decisions
1. The husband should be the one to decide whether the couple should use a family planning/birth spacing/child spacing method
2. Couples who practice family planning have a better quality of life than those who do not
3. Husbands and wives should discuss family planning
4. Men should not allow their wives to use family planning
5. A woman who uses family planning without her husband’s knowledge should be punished
6. A woman who has no children is not complete/fulfilled
7. A man who has no children is not complete/fulfilled
8. A woman should continue bearing children until she has at least one son
9. A woman should continue bearing children until she has at least one daughter.

Response Options:
Items 1, 4-9:
Strongly disagree/disagree - 1
Any other response - 0
Items 2 and 3:
Strongly agree/agree - 1
Any other response - 0

Attitudes towards family planning self-efficacy
10. You could start a conversation with your partner about family planning
11. You could convince your partner that you should use a method of family planning
12. You could get to a place where family planning methods are offered if you decided to use one
13. You could obtain a family planning method if you decided to use one<br&gt14. You could use a family planning method even if your partner doesn’t want you to
15. You could use a method of family planning if none of your friends or neighbors uses one,
16. You could use a family planning method even if your religious leader did not think you should use one
17. You could continue to use a family planning method if you experience some side effects

Response Options:
Strongly agree/agree - 1
Strongly disagree/disagree - 0

CATEGORIES:


GEOGRAPHIES TESTED:

Nigeria

POPULATIONS INCLUDED:
Female

AGE RANGE:
Adolescents
Adults

DOWNLOAD MEASURE

Scoring Procedures:

Attitudes towards couples’ family planning decisions: The dichotomized responses are summed to scores ranging from 0 to 9. The higher the score, the more gender-equitable the attitudes towards couples’ family planning decisions are.

Attitudes towards family planning self-efficacy: The dichotomized responses are summed to scores ranging from 0 to 8 with increasing score reflecting increasing family planning self-efficacy.

PRIMARY CITATION:

Okigbo, C. C., Speizer, I. S., Domino, M. E., Curtis, S. L., Halpern, C. T., & Fotso, J. C. (2018). Gender norms and modern contraceptive use in urban Nigeria: a multilevel longitudinal study. BMC Womens Health, 18(1), 178. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-018-0664-3

Pyschometric Score:

FORMATIVE RESEARCH

 Qualitative Research

 Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

 Field Expert Input

 Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

RELIABILITY

 Internal

 Test-retest

 Interrater

VALIDITY

 Content

 Face

 Criterion (gold-standard)

 Construct

Psychometric Scoring

LOW
Total Score: 2.00/8 Points (LOW) 

Citation Frequency

Low

KEY

 FULL POINTS
 PARTIAL POINTS
 NOT ASSESSED
 NOT APPLICABLE

For more details, see Scoring Methodology

Measure came from a peer-reviewed journal with a low impact score and/or inadequate information on psychometrics, but is an under-represented gender equality and empowerment construct

You have successfully registered

There was an error while trying to send your request. Please try again.

EMERGE will use the information you provide on this form to be in touch with you and to provide updates and marketing.