Gender Role Attitudes

Gender Role Attitudes is an 11-item measure taken from the Family and Changing Gender Roles IV-module from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) 2012. The measure captures societal attitudes on gender roles and parenthood.


Geographies Tested: Argentina,Australia,Austria,Belgium,Bulgaria,Canada,Chile,China,Croatia,Czech Republic,Denmark,Finland,France,Germany,Hungary,Iceland,India,Ireland,Israel,Japan,Korea, South,Latvia,Lithuania,Mexico,Netherlands,Norway,Philippines,Poland,Russia,Slovakia,Slovenia,South Africa,Sweden,Switzerland,Taiwan,United Kingdom,United States of America,Venezuela

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adults


1. A working mother can establish just as warm and secure a relationship with her children as a mother who does not work
2. A pre-school child is likely to suffer if his or her mother works
3. All in all, family life suffers when the woman has a full-time job
4. A job is all right, but what most women really want is a home and children
5. Being a housewife is just as fulfilling as working for pay
6. Both the man and woman should contribute to the household income
7. A man’s job is to earn money; a woman’s job is to look after the home and family

Response Options:
Strongly agree
Neither agree nor disagree
Strongly disagree

8. Do you think that women should work outside the home full-time, part-time or not at all under the following circumstances? After the youngest child starts school
9. Do you think that women should work outside the home full-time, part-time or not at all under the following circumstances? When there is a child under school age

Response Options:

10. Consider a couple who both work full-time and now have a new born child. […] if both are in a similar work situation and are eligible for paid leave, how should this paid leave period be divided between the mother and the father? (This item was only presented to respondents who previously stated that there should be paid parental leave)

Response Options:
Entire leavemother: most of the leave;
father: someboth halffather: most of the leave;
mother: somefather: entire leave

11. Consider a family with a child under School age. What, in your opinion, is the best way for them to organize their family and work life?

Response Options:
Mother home;
Father works full-timemother works part-time;
Father works full-timeboth work full-time or both work part-timefather works part-time;
Mother works full-timefather home;
Mother works full-time

Scoring Procedures

Not Available

Original Citation

Hudde, A. (2018). Societal agreement on gender role attitudes and childlessness in 38 countries. European Journal of Population, 34(5), 745-767.

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Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








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