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Global Early Adolescent Study: Gender Norms

The Gender Norms measure is a 44-item measure focused on what is considered normative for boys/men and girls/women in terms of dating, sex, social interaction, and behavior. This measure was included as part of the Global Early Adolescent Study, a multi-country study focused on elucidating the factors that promote sexual and reproductive health and risk factors associated with poor outcomes among early adolescents.

Categories

Geographies Tested: Belgium,Bolivia,Burkina Faso,China,Democratic Republic of the Congo,Ecuador,Egypt,India,Kenya,Malawi,Nigeria,South Africa,United Kingdom,United States of America,Vietnam

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents

Items:

The following questions are about adolescents or people your age. For each statement, we would like to know how much you agree or disagree with each statement.

1. A girl will lose interest in studying if she has a boyfriend. Do you agree or disagree?
2. A boy and a girl your age should be able to spend time together alone if they want to. Do you agree or disagree?
3. Girls your age often get into “trouble” when they have boyfriends. Do you agree or disagree?
4. A boy should be able to have a girlfriend if he wants to. Do you agree or disagree?
5. Boys have girlfriends for fun more than love. Do you agree or disagree?
6. It’s normal for a boy your age to want a girlfriend. Do you agree or disagree?
7. Girls who have boyfriends are irresponsible. Do you agree or disagree?
8. Boys like girls who wear revealing clothes. Do you agree or disagree?
9. A girl should be able to have a boyfriend if she wants to. Do you agree or disagree?
10. Girls are the victims of rumors if they have boyfriends. Do you agree or disagree?
11. Boys tell girls they love them when they don’t. Do you agree or disagree?
12. Adolescent girls should avoid boys because they trick them into having sex. Do you agree or disagree?
13. Boys have girlfriends to show off their friends. Do you agree or disagree?
14. Boys generally compete for the prettiest girls. Do you agree or disagree?
15. Boys feel they should have girlfriends because their friends do. Do you agree or disagree?
16. Adolescent boys lose interest in a girl after they have sex with her. Do you agree or disagree?
17. It’s normal for a girl to want a boyfriend at your age. Do you agree or disagree?
18. Adolescent boys fool girls into having sex. Do you agree or disagree?
19. Boys should be raised tough so they can overcome any difficulty in life. Do you agree or disagree?
20. Girls should avoid raising their voice to be lady like. Do you agree or disagree?
21. Boys should always defend themselves even if it means fighting. Do you agree or disagree?
22. Girls are expected to be humble. Do you agree or disagree?
23. Girls need their parent’s protection more than boys. Do you agree or disagree?
24. Boys should be able to show their feelings without fear of being teased. Do you agree or disagree?
25. Boys who behave like girls are considered weak. Do you agree or disagree?
26. A boy should always have the final say about decision with his girlfriend. Do you agree or disagree?
27. It’s important for boys to show they are tough even if they are nervous inside. Do you agree or disagree?
28. It is ok for an adolescent girl to have sex as long as she avoids getting pregnant. Do you agree or disagree?
29. In general, a girl should only have sex with someone she loves. Do you agree or disagree?
30. Most of the time, if an adolescent girl says “no” to sex, her boyfriend will dump her. Do you agree or disagree?
31. It is ok for an adolescent boy to have sex as long as she avoids getting a girl pregnant. Do you agree or disagree?
32. In general, a boy should only have sex with someone he loves. Do you agree or disagree?
33. It is okay to tease a girl who acts like a boy. Do you agree or disagree?
34. It’s the girl’s responsibility to prevent pregnancy. Do you agree or disagree?
35. Women who carry condoms on them are easy. Do you agree or disagree?
36. Girls should be proud of their bodies as they become women. Do you agree or disagree?
37. It is okay to tease a boy who acts like a girl. Do you agree or disagree?
38. Boys and girls should be equally responsible for household chores. Do you agree or disagree?
39. A woman’s role is taking care of her home and family. Do you agree or disagree?
40. A man should have the final word about decisions in the home. Do you agree or disagree?
41. A woman should obey her husband in all matters. Do you agree or disagree?
42. A real men should have as many female partners he can. Do you agree or disagree?
43. Men are always ready for sex. Do you agree or disagree?
44. Men should be the ones who bring money home for the family, not women. Do you agree or disagree?

Response Options:*
Agree a lot
Agree a little
Neither agree, nor disagree
Disagree a little
Disagree a lot

* Numeric codes for the Response Options above were not provided in the original questionnaire

Scoring Procedures

Not Applicable

Original Citation

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and The World Health Organization. (2017). Global Early Adolescent Study Gender Norms Instrument. https://www.geastudy.org/geas-quantitative-measures

Psychometric Score

Citation Frequency

Ease of Use Score

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

Reliability

Internal

Test-retest

Interrater

Validity

Content

Face

Criterion (gold-standard)

Construct

Ease of Use

Readability

Scoring Clarity

Length

KEY