The Pros and Cons of Bystander Action Scale (PCBAS)

The Pros and Cons of Bystander Action Scale (PCBAS) is a 10-item measure that aims to understand students’ perceptions of pros and cons of bystander action in situations related to relationship abuse and sexual assault.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents


1. If I try to do something, I can keep someone from getting hurt.
2. It is important for student to be part of keeping everyone safe.
3. Students will think I’m cool if I help. 4. Helping could make people mad at me.
5. I could get physically hurt by helping.
6. I might get in trouble if I help.
7. People will think I’m trying to get involved in drama if I help.
8. Even if I don’t know the person, I can still help.
9. It might not be serious enough for me to help.
10. I might get made fun of for helping.

Response options range from 1 (disagree strongly) to 4 (agree strongly).

Scoring Procedures

Not Available

Original Citation

Edwards, K. M., Banyard, V. L., Sessarego, S. N., Stanley, L. R., Mitchell, K. J., Eckstein, R. P., Rodenhizer, K. A. E., & Leyva, P. C. (2018). Measurement tools to assess relationship abuse and sexual assault prevention program effectiveness among youth. Psychology of Violence, 8(5), 537-545.

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Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








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