Women’s Empowerment in Nutrition Index (WENI)

The Women’s Empowerment in Nutrition Index (WENI) is an index for women’s empowerment in the realm of nutrition, and covers domains including food knowledge, access to food resources, health agency, and fertility. It captures the processes by which individuals acquire the capacity to be well-fed and healthy, in a context where this capacity was previously denied to them.


Warning Flag

ITEMS:

Food knowledge

1. What is the best source of calcium?

Response Options:
Milk or dairy - 1
If not milk or dairy - 0

2. Which food item helps preventing iodine deficiency?

Response Options:
Iodized salt - 1
If not iodized salt - 0

Food resources

We would like to know about the kinds of work you have done in the past one year
3. Paid work as employee
4. Participation in Non-agricultural work in own account/family run enterprises/ self employed i.e. own enterprise

Response Options:
Yes – 1
No – 0

What are the activities which you have been involved in the past year on your own farm for which would say you have the primary responsibility
5. Engagement with livestock (large and small ruminants – cows, buffaloes, goat, sheep etc.)
6. Engagement with poultry and beekeeping (Chicken, fowl, ducks)
7. Fishing in common pool
8. Aquaculture
9. Kitchen gardens

Response Options:
Primary role – 2
Yes, but not primary role - 1
Not engaged at all – 0

10. We have talked about different activities on own farms/livestock, we would like to understand what kind of aid or support/inputs you have benefitted from or each of these.
11. Have you personally (i.e. individually) received any aid for any of the above?

Response Options:
Credit – 1
Asset/in-kind/equipment – 2
Training – 3
Marketing or institutional support – 4

Which of the following situations is considered acceptable for someone of your sex, within your community?
12. Working outside the village – Alone
13. Working outside the village –With Spouse
14. Working outside the village with same sex individuals
15. Working within the village – Alone
16. Working within the village –With Spouse
17. Working within the village with same sex individuals

Response Options:
Yes – 1
No – 0

18. Do you current have this asset in your own name?

  • Land

Response Options:
Yes – 1
No – 0

19. In the past one year have you had any independent source of cash or in-kind (earned or unearned/transfers)?

Response Options:
No (none) – 0
Cash only – 1
Cash and kind (mixed) – 2
In kind only – 3

20. What are the sources?

  • Paid work (agricultural/non-agricultural)
  • Cash earned own account non-agricultural enterprises managed by the individual
  • Cash earned from other family own account non-agricultural enterprises
  • Cash earned from crop cultivation
  • Cash earned from livestock, poultry, kitchen gardens, fish, etc. from own account household agricultural activities
  • Remittances to you, specifically, from family members working outside the village
  • Parental (family) transfers to you specifically
  • Other family members giving you, specifically
  • NGO/ political parties
  • Interest from deposits/financial instruments accruing to you
  • Governmental transfers to you (pensions, maternity entitlements
  • Others

Response Options:
Cash only – 1
Cash and kind (mixed) – 2
In kind only – 3
Not applicable – 88

Food agency

21. In the past one year, was the decision to do paid work entirely your own?

Response Options:
Yes – 1
No – 0

22. Do you have any dietary restrictions (avoidance of meat, milk, eggs, or fasting, etc.)?

Response Options:
Always observe restrictions – 1
More than once a week – 2
More than once a month – 3
Occasionally – 4
No restriction – 5

23. In the past one year has it ever happened that earnings from any of these assets have been used without your consent?

Response Options:
Yes – 1
No – 0

24. In general, how much of a say do you have in:

  • Which crops to cultivate on the land
  • What to grow in the kitchen garden
  • Which variety to choose from
  • Which livestock to keep
  • How to use the products from livestock
  • How much of the produce to keep back for self consumption

Response Options:
No say - 1
Some – 2
Major – 3
Final/Main decision-maker – 4
Not applicable – 88

25. How much ‘say’ do you have in decisions (major and minor) in any of the above activities?

Response Options:
No say - 1
Some – 2
Major – 3
Final/Main decision-maker – 4
Not applicable – 88

26. Overall, how much control do you have over the cash and in-kind income obtained from all of these sources?

Response Options:
No control – 1
Some control – 2
Major control – 3
Full control – 4
Unable to say (avoid this) – 5
If different for cash and in-kind, please specify codes – 88

Health knowledge

27. Can you tell me how you can recognize someone who has anemia?

Response Options:

Is unaware of anemia – 0
Is aware of anemia but does not know the signs – 1
Knows – 2

28. Have you heard the name of ORS (other local options, e.g., electrolyte)?

Response Options:
Yes – 1
No – 0

29. When do you use ORS?

Response Options:
Dehydration or diarrhea – 1
Not dehydration or diarrhea – 0

30. How does one get malaria?

Response Options:
Mosquito bite – 1
Not mosquito bite – 0

Health resources

31. In the last 12 months have you experienced any chronic health problems?

Response Options:
Yes – 1
No – 0

32. We would like to know about the kinds of work you have done in the past one year Paid work as employee

Response Options:
Yes – 1
No – 0

33. Where is your parental family located?

Response Options:
Within village – 1
Outside village – 2
Lives with parents – 3

34. Can you visit your parental family members/relatives/friends alone?

Response Options:
Yes, with permission – 1
Yes, I just inform them – 2
Yes – 3
No – 0
Not relevant, live with parents – 88

35. In general, for the different kinds of work you do, how intense is the majority of the work that you do?

Response Options:
Back-breaking – 1
Heavy – 2
Moderate – 3
Light – 4
Sedentary – 5

36. Do you get some help in household chores when you are sick?

Response Options:
No – 0
Yes – 1

37. A woman [man] in the village has a fever. She [he] is unable to work and would like to rest but she [he] has to continue with household chores since there is no one else to take on these tasks and /or expected to continue doing this regardless. How closely does this resemble your own circumstance?

Response Options:
Exactly like mine – 1
Close to mine – 2
Somewhat like mine – 3
Not at all like mine – 4
Unable to say – 9

38. How often do you use a toilet?

Response Options:
Never – 1
Frequently – 2
Rarely – 3
Always – 4

39. Do you wash your hands after defecating?

Response Options:
No – 0
Yes – 1

40. On a typical day this year when you do paid work, how many hours do you spend on the following [hours] ?

  • Paid work (on and off-farm)
  • Own enterprise (non-agricultural)
  • Family enterprise (non-agricultural)
  • Own farm – cultivation
  • Own farm-animal husbandry
  • Indirect care work
  • Direct care work

Response Options:
[ ] hours

41. In any work that you do, at the workplace (paid work, household enterprise, agriculture or domestic and unpaid work) would you say there is moderate to high risk of any risk (injury, death, major health problems, harassment (sexual and physical abuse)?

Response Options:
No – 0
Yes, one or the other problems exists in some of the tasks I do – 1
Yes, one or the other problems exists in most of the tasks I do – 2

Health Agency

42. In general, if you needed to go to the health centre, is there an expectation that you need to get permission from someone within the family before going for health care?

Response Options:
Yes, otherwise it creates problems – 1
Yes, but there are no issues if I don’t – 2
No expectation, but I inform – 3
No expectation, I can go as I please – 4

43. Can you go alone to the health centre for your treatment?

Response Options:
No – 0
Yes – 1

44. Who usually makes decisions for your health care?

Response Options:
Respondent – 1
Other – 2
Respondent and other jointly – 3

Institutions

45. Are you currently member of any group[Investigator: These groups can be any of the following: Youth Club/ Cultural group, Trade union/ Business or professional group, Self-help groups/Credit/savings Group, Political party, NGO, Cooperatives, Religious groups, Caste groups]?

Response Options:
No – 0
Yes – 1

46. In general if you wanted to join any of these organizations, would you need to seek anyone’s permission to do so?

Response Options:
No – 0
Yes – 1

47. Do you practice Ghonghat/Burkha/Pallu/Purdah?

Response Options:
No, never – 0
Yes, always – 1
On occasion – 2
Other – 77

48. Do you have a mobile phone of your own?

Response Options:
No – 0
Yes – 1

49. Do you get information on government schemes through your or any family member’s mobile phone?

Response Options:
No – 0
Yes – 1

50. Have you ever visited a bank or post office unaccompanied in order to conduct any business?

Response Options:
Never – 1
A few times – 2
Many times – 3

51. Can you visit your parental family members/relatives/friends alone?

Response Options:
Yes, with permission – 1
Yes, I just inform them – 2
Yes – 3
No – 0
Not relevant, live with parents – 88

52. In any work that you do, at the workplace (paid work, household enterprise, agriculture or domestic and unpaid work) would you say there is moderate to high risk of any risk (injury, death, major health problems, harassment (sexual and physical abuse) ?

Response Options:
No – 0
Yes, one or the other problems exists in some of the tasks I do – 1
Yes, one or the other problems exists in most of the tasks I do – 2

53. Which of the following have you participated in at least once during the past five years?

  • Submitting (signing) a petition
  • Rally or protest for any issue
  • Any collective action to demand public services
  • Approached any official collectively or individually seeking intervention
  • Voting (local, state or national)
  • Stood/contested in elections for public office
  • Held positions in the village administration or beyond

Response Options:
No – 0
Yes – 1

CATEGORIES:


GEOGRAPHIES TESTED:

India

POPULATIONS INCLUDED:
Female
Male

AGE RANGE:
Adults

DOWNLOAD MEASURE

Scoring Procedures:

The final index score is calculated as weighted average of the different domain-dimension indicators. Various nutrition, social and socio-economic indicators are used in combination with item scores to create the index. Full scoring details can be found here.

PRIMARY CITATION:

Narayanan, S., Lentz, E., Fontana, M., De, A., & Kulkarni, B. (2019). Developing the Women's Empowerment in Nutrition Index in two states of India. Food Policy, 89, 101780. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2019.101780

Psychometric Score:

FORMATIVE RESEARCH

 Qualitative Research

 Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

 Field Expert Input

 Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

RELIABILITY

 Internal

 Test-retest

 Interrater

VALIDITY

 Content

 Face

 Criterion (gold-standard)

 Construct

Psychometric Scoring

MEDIUM
Total Score: 5.50/9 Points (MEDIUM) 

Citation Frequency

MEDIUM

KEY

 FULL POINTS
 PARTIAL POINTS
 NOT ASSESSED
 NOT APPLICABLE

For more details, see Scoring Methodology

Measure came from a peer-reviewed journal with a low impact score and/or inadequate information on psychometrics, but is an under-represented gender equality and empowerment construct

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