Checklist for Assessment of Gender Disadvantage (CAGED)

Checklist for Assessment of GEnder Disadvantage (CAGED) is a 15-item tool to measure gender disadvantage among adolescent women. Items are organized into 4 subscales: gender discrimination (male preference/criticism from others), violence and sexual harassment (exposure to physical violence/sexual harassment within and outside the family), barriers to personal growth related to gender (lack of privacy and difficulty in pursuing personal goals and difficulty in continuing and completing education), and emotional distress. This was originally conducted in a low-income neighborhood in urban India.

High Psychometric Score Warning Flag


Instructions: Given below is a list of questions that ask about your experience of being a woman. There is no right or wrong answer. Please think of your life as a woman living within a society and family and answer the questions as Yes or No.

1. Does it upset you that male members (father, brothers) in your family are given much more attention (more and better food, better sleeping arrangements, more pocket money)
2. Does it upset you that male members in your family are given more opportunities (studying, working..) than female members (sister, yourself, mother)?
3. Young women may experience emotions such as anger, fear, tension and sadness when faced with gender discrimination. Have you often experienced these emotions when you have been faced with gender discrimination?
4. When faced with difficult situations related to being a woman, do you at times tend to think that ending your life may be the only solution?
5. Have you ever tried to harm yourself when you were unable to manage such difficult situations?
6. Are financial difficulties a hindrance for you to achieve your goals in life because you are a woman (ex: education, career, leisure…)?
7. Girls of your age may face harassment or teasing by boys/men. Have you experienced such harassment/teasing that has been distressful?
8. Do you feel helpless when being teased/ harassed by boys/men?
9. Does the lack of space or privacy for yourself related to being a woman within your house or neighborhood bother you?
10. Do you often experience ridicule/criticism/scoldings from your family members because you are a girl?
11. Have you experienced physical violence like being beaten, pushed or hurt physically in any other way by your family members?
12. Have you been witness to ongoing domestic violence in your family (ex: father beating mother)?
13. Have you ever experienced unwanted sexual advances that have caused you distress?
14. Do you think that your family does not consider your opinion or likes and dislikes even in matters related to you?
15. Do you often feel that your freedom is curtailed and that you are not free to pursue your interests because of your gender?

Response Options:
Yes - 1
No - 0







Scoring Procedures:

Add all the items for the final score. Scores will range from 0-15 with higher numbers indicating higher levels of perceived gender disadvantage.

For the gender related barriers subscale add items 2, 6, and 15. For the gender discrimination subscale add items 1, 10, and 14. For the violence/sexual harassment subscale add items 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, and 13. For the emotional distress subscale add items 3, 4, and 5.


Satyanarayana, V. A., Chandra, P. S., Sharma, M. K., Sowmya, H. R., & Kandavel, T. (2016). Three sides of a triangle: gender disadvantage, resilience and psychological distress in a sample of adolescent girls from India. International journal of culture and mental health, 9(4), 364-372.

Pyschometric Score:


 Qualitative Research

 Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

 Field Expert Input

 Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








 Criterion (gold-standard)


Psychometric Scoring

Total Score: 5.50/8 Points (HIGH) 

Citation Frequency




For more details, see Scoring Methodology

Measure came from a peer-reviewed journal with a low impact score and/or inadequate information on psychometrics, but is an under-represented gender equality and empowerment construct

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