The Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) scale is a 6 item measure of an individual’s own gender-role self-concept. The items cover three centralized aspects, namely, gender-role adoption, gender-role preference, and gender-role identity.
Geographies Tested: Germany
Populations Included: Female
Age Range: Adolescents, Adults
Each item is to be independently rated in terms of femininity and masculinity.
1. I consider myself as…
2. Ideally, I would like to be…
3. Traditionally, my interests would be considered as…
4. Traditionally, my attitudes and beliefs would be considered as…
5. Traditionally, my behavior would be considered as…
6. Traditionally, my outer appearance would be considered as…
Scales ranged from 1 (not at all masculine) to 7 (totally masculine) and from 1 (not at all feminine) to 7 (totally feminine).
Kachel, S., Steffens, M. C., & Niedlich, C. (2016). Traditional masculinity and femininity: Validation of a new scale assessing gender roles. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 956. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00956
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Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework
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Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing