Attitudes Toward Roles and Rights of Women and Girls

The Attitudes Toward Roles and Rights of Women and Girls index is a 9-item self-reported measure of individual attitudes toward female gender roles and rights. The index captures various feminist and traditional gender roles and rights like rights to education and gender roles in the household.


Geographies Tested: India

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


1. A woman’s most important role is being a good homemaker.
2. A man should have the final word about decisions in his home.
3. A woman should tolerate violence to keep her family together.
4. Wives should be less educated than their husbands.
5. Boys should get more opportunities resources for education.
6. Men and women should get equal opportunities in all spheres of life.
7. Girls should be allowed to study as far as they want.
8. Daughters should have a similar right to inherited property as sons.
9. It would be a good idea to elect a woman as the village Sarpanch.

Response Options:
Strongly agree
Strongly disagree

Scoring Procedures

Responses from parents and students to overlapping questions on their respective surveys are aggregated using a gender index. “Agree” or “Strongly agree” answers are coded as 0 if the item is opposed to gender equality (items 1-5), and are coded as 1 if the item is in favor of gender equality (items 6-9). “Disagree” or “Strongly disagree” answers are coded as 1 if the item is opposed to gender equality, and are coded as 0 if the item is in favor of gender equality. Scores from the nine items are averaged to create a gender index that ranges from 0 (less gender equitable views) to 1 (more gender equitable views).

Original Citation

Dhar, D., Jain, T., & Jayachandran, S. (2019). Intergenerational transmission of gender attitudes: Evidence from India. The Journal of Development Studies, 55(12), 2572-2592.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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