Survey-based Women’s Empowerment (SWPER) Index - Global

Survey-based Women’s Empowerment (SWPER) Index - Global is a 14-item measure that has been adapted from the original version that had been tested in Africa. This index is intended to be utilized to measure women's empowerment across all low- and middle-income countries.


Multi-Country

ITEMS:

Attitude to violence
1. Beating justified if wife goes out without telling husband.
2. Beating justified if wife neglects the children.
3. Beating justified if wife argues with husband.
4. Beating justified if wife refuses to have sex with husband.
5. Beating justified if wife burns the food.

Response Options:
Yes - -1
Don't know - 0
No - 1

Social independence
6. Frequency of reading newspaper or magazine

Response Options:
Not at all - 0
Less than once a week - 1
At least once a week - 2

7. Woman education in completed years of schooling
8. Age of woman at first birth
9. Age at first cohabitation
10. Age difference: woman's minus husband's age
11. Education difference: woman's minus husband's years of schooling

Response Options:
Years

Decision-making
12. Who usually decides on respondent's health care.
13. Who usually decides on large household purchases.
14. Who usually decides on visits to family or relatives.

Response Options:
Husband or other alone - -1
Joint decision or respondent alone - 1

CATEGORIES:


GEOGRAPHIES TESTED:

Afghanistan
Albania
Angola
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Benin
Bolivia
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Chad
Comoros
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Cote d'Ivoire
Dominican Republic
Egypt
Ethiopia
Gabon
Ghana
Guatemala
Guinea
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
India
Indonesia
Kenya
Kyrgyzstan
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Maldives
Mali
Moldova
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar (Burma)
Namibia
Nepal
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Pakistan
Peru
Philippines
Rwanda
Sao Tome and Principe
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Tajikistan
Tanzania
The Gambia
Uganda
Ukraine
Zambia
Zimbabwe

POPULATIONS INCLUDED:
Female

AGE RANGE:

Scoring Procedures:

Index scores are created by subscale. Full details on the calculation of the index and suggested cutpoints for empowerment scores are described in the supplemental information of the primary citation.

PRIMARY CITATION:

Ewerling, F., Raj, A., Victora, C. G., Hellwig, F., Coll, C. V., & Barros, A. J. (2020). SWPER Global: A survey-based women’s empowerment index expanded from Africa to all low- and middle-income countries. Journal of Global Health, 10(2), 020343. https://doi.org/10.7189/jogh.10.020434

Psychometric Score:

FORMATIVE RESEARCH

 Qualitative Research

 Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

 Field Expert Input

 Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

RELIABILITY

 Internal

 Test-retest

 Interrater

VALIDITY

 Content

 Face

 Criterion (gold-standard)

 Construct

Psychometric Scoring

MEDIUM
Total Score: 4.00/8 Points (MEDIUM) 

Citation Frequency

MEDIUM

KEY

 FULL POINTS
 PARTIAL POINTS
 NOT ASSESSED
 NOT APPLICABLE

For more details, see Scoring Methodology

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