Survey-based Women’s Empowerment (SWPER) Index

The Survey-based Women’s Empowerment (SWPER) Index is a country-level 15-item measure of women’s empowerment, based on items taken from 34 African nations’ Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Three dimensions of empowerment are captured by the measure: attitudes toward intimate partner violence; women’s social independence (education and employment); and household decision making power.

Multi-Country

ITEMS:

1. Beating justified if wife goes out without telling husband
2. Beating justified if wife neglects the children
3. Beating justified if wife argues with husband
4. Beating justified if wife refuses to have sex with husband
5. Beating justified if wife burns the food

Response Options:
Justified - -1
Don’t know - 0
Not justified - 1

6. Frequency of reading newspaper or magazine

Response Options:
Not at all - 0
Less than once a week - 1
At least once a week - 2

7. Respondent worked in past 12 months

Response Options:
No - 1
In the past year - 1
Have a job, but on leave past 7 days - 2
Currently working - 2

8. Woman’s education in completed years of schooling
9. Education difference: woman’s minus husband’s completed years of schooling
10. Age difference: woman’s age minus husband’s age
11. Age at first cohabitation
12. Age of woman at first birth (input for women who have not had a child)

Response Options:
Years

13. Who usually decides on respondent’s health care
14. Who usually decides on large household purchases
15. Who usually decides on visits to family or relatives

Response Options:
Husband or other alone - -1
Joint - 0
Respondent alone - 1

CATEGORIES:


GEOGRAPHIES TESTED:

Benin
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Comoros
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Cote d'Ivoire
Egypt
Ethiopia
Gabon
Ghana
Guinea
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
Sao Tome and Principe
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Swaziland
Tanzania
The Gambia
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe

POPULATIONS INCLUDED:
Female

AGE RANGE:

DOWNLOAD MEASURE

Scoring Procedures:

Higher values indicate greater empowerment

PRIMARY CITATION:

Ewerling, F., Lynch, J. W., Victora, C. G., van Eerdewijk, A., Tyszler, M., & Barros, A. J. (2017). The SWPER index for women's empowerment in Africa: development and validation of an index based on survey data. The Lancet Global Health, 5(9), e916-e923. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(17)30292-9

Pyschometric Score:

FORMATIVE RESEARCH

 Qualitative Research

 Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

 Field Expert Input

 Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

RELIABILITY

 Internal

 Test-retest

 Interrater

VALIDITY

 Content

 Face

 Criterion (gold-standard)

 Construct

Psychometric Scoring

MEDIUM
Total Score: 3.50/8 Points (MEDIUM) 

Citation Frequency

High

KEY

 FULL POINTS
 PARTIAL POINTS
 NOT ASSESSED
 NOT APPLICABLE

For more details, see Scoring Methodology

You have successfully registered

There was an error while trying to send your request. Please try again.

EMERGE will use the information you provide on this form to be in touch with you and to provide updates and marketing.