Index of Patriarchy

The Index of Patriarchy is an 11-item measure of familial behavior that reflect varying degrees of sex and age-related social inequality across different societal and family settings. The index is comprised of four domains or clusters of patriarchy: domination of men over women, domination of the older generation over the younger generation, patrilocality, and son preference. Each cluster includes one or more variables which capture that domain of patriarchy.

Multi-Country Warning Flag

ITEMS:

Cluster 1: Domination of men over women
1. (1.1) Proportion of female household heads among all adult (aged 20+) household heads of family households
2. (1.2) Proportion of young brides (i.e. ever-married women in the 15-19 age group)
3. (1.3) Proportion of wives who are older than their husbands (if more than one wife, consider first wife only)
4. (1.4) Proportion of young women living as non-kin (i.e. women age 20-34 who live as non-kin in the household)

Cluster 2: Domination of the older generation over the younger generation
5. (2.1) Proportion of elderly men (aged 65+) co-residing with a younger household head
6. (2.2) Proportion of neolocal residence among men (i.e. ever-married men age 20-29)
7. (2.3) Proportion of elderly people (aged 65+) living with at least one lateral relative
8. (2.4) Proportion of elderly people (aged 65+) living in joint residence (i.e., two or more married children in same household)

Cluster 3: Patrilocality
9. (3.1) Proportion of elderly people (aged 65+) living with at least one married daughter

Cluster 4: Son preference
10. (4.1) Proportion of boys among the last child (boy as last child)
11. (4.2) Sex ratio (i.e number of boys to 100 girls) in the youngest age group (age 0-4)

Response options:
Not applicable.

CATEGORIES:


GEOGRAPHIES TESTED:

Albania
Austria
Bulgaria
Denmark
France
Germany
Hungary
Italy
Lithuania
Poland
Russia
Serbia
Turkey

POPULATIONS INCLUDED:
Female
Male

AGE RANGE:
Adolescents
Adults

DOWNLOAD MEASURE

Scoring Procedures:

The Index of Patriarchy is calculated based on patriarchy scores of the four clusters. All variables are converted to patriarchy points ranging from a 0 to 10. For son preference variables, cut-off values are used to assign patriarchy points. Cut-off values are 0.51 for variable 4.1 (boy as last child) and 105 for variable 4.2 (sex ratio). Patriarchy scores for each cluster are then calculated by adding the patriarchy points of the subsumed variables. The final Index of Patriarchy is determined by adding the mean patriarchy score for each cluster; final scores range from 0 to 40 with higher scores indicating higher patriarchy.

PRIMARY CITATION:

Gruber, S., & Szoltysek, M. (2016) The patriarchy index: A comparative study of power relations across historical Europe. The History of the Family, 21(2),133-174. https://doi.org/10.1080/1081602X.2014.1001769

Pyschometric Score:

FORMATIVE RESEARCH

 Qualitative Research

 Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

 Field Expert Input

 Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

RELIABILITY

 Internal

 Test-retest

 Interrater

VALIDITY

 Content

 Face

 Criterion (gold-standard)

 Construct

Psychometric Scoring

MEDIUM
Total Score: 4.50/8 Points (MEDIUM) 

Citation Frequency

Medium

KEY

 FULL POINTS
 PARTIAL POINTS
 NOT ASSESSED
 NOT APPLICABLE

For more details, see Scoring Methodology

Measure came from a peer-reviewed journal with a low impact score and/or inadequate information on psychometrics, but is an under-represented gender equality and empowerment construct

You have successfully registered

There was an error while trying to send your request. Please try again.

EMERGE will use the information you provide on this form to be in touch with you and to provide updates and marketing.